Friday, 17 November 2017

White Rajahs

The White Rajahs were a dynastic monarchy of the English Brooke family, who founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak, located on the island of Borneo, from 1841 to 1946. The first ruler was Englishman James Brooke. As a reward for helping the Sultanate of Brunei fight piracy and insurgency among the indigenous peoples, he was granted the landmass of Sarawak in 1841 and received independent kingdom status.

Based on descent through the male line in accordance with the Will of Sir James Brooke, the White Rajahs' dynasty continued through Brooke's nephew and grandnephew, the latter of whom ceded his rights to the United Kingdom in 1946. His nephew had been the legal heir to the throne and objected to the cession, as did most of the Sarawak members of the Council Negri.

Sarawak was part of the realm of Brunei until 1841 when James Brooke was granted a sizeable area of land in the southwest area of Brunei – around the city of Sarawak (now Kuching) and the nearby mining region of Bau – from Bruneian Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II. He was later confirmed with the title of Rajah of the territory. The Kingdom of Sarawak developed and expanded during the rule of the first two White Rajahs, growing to occupy much of the north region of the island of Borneo. The Brooke administrations leased or annexed more land from Brunei.

The White Rajahs pursued a policy of paternalism, with the goal of protecting the "native peoples" (indigenous peoples) from "capitalist exploitation". While James Brooke laid much of the groundwork for the expansion of Sarawak, his nephew Charles, the second rajah, was the great builder. He constructed public buildings to serve welfare, such as a hospital, in addition to forts. He worked to extend the borders of the state.

Vyner Brooke instituted significant political reforms during his tenure. He ended the absolute rule of the Rajah in 1941, before the Japanese invasion of World War II, by granting new powers to the Council Negri (the parliament). Bertram co-ruled with his elder brother, taking turns of 6 – 8 months in charge of the country each year. By 1939 Bertram's son Anthony had taken the reins of government, and it was with considerable controversy that Vyner attempted to cede Sarawak to Britain secretly in 1946 in what gave rise to the anti-cession movement of Sarawak.

GOVERNMENT

When James Brooke first arrived in Sarawak, it was governed as a vassal state of the Sultanate of Brunei; the system of government was based on the Bruneian model. Brooke reorganised the government according to the British model, eventually creating a civil service. It recruited European, chiefly British, officers to run district outstations. The Sarawak Service was continually reformed by Rajah James and his successors.

Rajah James retained many of the customs and symbols of Malay monarchy, and combined them with his own style of absolute rule. The Rajah had the power to introduce laws and acted as chief judge in Kuching.

The White Rajahs were determined to prevent the indigenous peoples of Sarawak from being exploited by Western business interests. They allowed the Borneo Company Limited (the Borneo Company) to assist in managing the economy. The core of the early Sarawak economy was antimony, later followed by gold, which was mined in Bau by Chinese syndicates who imported numerous workers from China. After the local Chinese uprising in 1857,[3] the mining operations were gradually taken over by the Borneo Company; it bought out the last Chinese syndicate in 1884.The Borneo Company provided military support to the White Rajahs during crises such as the Chinese uprising. One of the company steamships, the Sir James Brooke, helped recapture Kuching.

Rajah Charles formed a small paramilitary force, the Sarawak Rangers, to police and defend the expanding state. This small army also manned a series of forts around the country, acted as the Rajahs' personal guard, and performed ceremonial duties.

CESSION TO THE UNITED KINGDOM

After the Second World War, during which Sarawak and Borneo had been occupied by Japanese forces, the third rajah, Vyner Brooke, ceded his life interest in Sarawak to the Colonial Office. Unclear as to the legality of cession, the British Government simultaneously passed a Bill of Annexation. Rajah Vyner's nephew and legal heir, Anthony Brooke, initially opposed annexation by the Crown, as did a majority of the native members of the Council Negri.

Because of his opposition to the cession, Anthony Brooke was considered a suspect when Duncan Stewart, the second British governor to Sarawak, was assassinated by two people that were believed to be members of a group dedicated to restoring him as Rajah. In fact they were from a political group agitating for union with newly independent Indonesia. He was never prosecuted. Documents released in the late 20th century indicate that the British Government knew that Brooke was not involved, but chose not to reveal the truth of the matter so not to provoke Indonesia. It had recently won its war of independence from the Netherlands, and the UK was already dealing with the Malayan Emergency to the north-west.Since those events, there has been no serious movement for the restoration of the monarchy, although Anthony's son James Bertram Lionel Brooke remains the principal beneficiary (heir) under the Will of Sir James Brooke.

The period of Brooke rule is generally looked upon favourably in Sarawak, and in recent times the government has accepted the importance of their legacy for its social, cultural, and touristic value.

The Brooke family still maintains strong ties to the state and its people and are represented by the Brooke Trust, and by Anthony Brooke's grandson Jason Desmond Anthony Brooke, at many state functions and supporting heritage projects.

Principality of Aigues Mortes

Aigues-Mortes (Occitan: Aigas Mòrtas) is a French commune in the Gard department in the Occitanie region of southern France.
The medieval city walls surrounding the city are well preserved.
The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aigues-Mortais or Aigues-Mortaises.

PRINCE CABINET

The Prince's cabinet is the equivalent of the government of the principality. Its mission is to organize activities, study and accompany certain projects, highlight local talent and know-how and ensure good relations with other micronations around the world to promote exchange of expertise in several fields.

The Prince's Cabinet is made up of member-citizens motivated by the idea of ​​doing useful things for their city while having fun. To join the useful and pleasant according to the means and the resources which we have on Aigues-Mortes. Together these men and women together build the principality to make a beautiful solidarity experience.
The Prince's office is the source of several evening activities that allowed the talents of some sixty local artisans to be exposed and the participation of more than forty merchants. His work allowed the creation of our RTAM internet TV channel whose videos have recorded a clear step forward, to initiate work for the establishment of a local currency, to contribute to the opening of a music festival, to support a project of food self-sufficiency, and to organize an international summit to welcome French micronations from several countries.

The Cabinet is chaired by Prince Jean-Pierre IV who is assisted by the Chancellor and other members chosen by the majority of the members in place. They are then appointed by the Prince to take place in the Cabinet. For each project set up by the Principality of Aigues-Mortes, Prince Jean-Pierre IV observes a great rigor of management while ensuring the respect of the principles and values ​​of our micronation.

THE PRINCELY FAMILY

Their Serene Highnesses, Prince Jean-Pierre IV and Princess Olivia-Eugénie reign since June 21, 2011 on the Principality. Our blessed high-mortal sovereigns are a very close and very accessible couple for their fellow citizens.

Prince Jean-Pierre IV is above all loved and respected for his qualities of micronational statesman because he not only defends the interests of Aigues-Mortes abroad, but he works tirelessly on real and concrete projects to develop the commerce, the attraction of the city and the culture. He is at the origin of the local currency Flamingo and he co-founded, FIMCAM, a festival of international classical music occurring in Aigues-Mortes. Abroad, the Prince represents the Principality at major micronational conferences and maintains close relations with other micronations, with a view to establishing a strong citizen network to defend important topics such as the fight against global warming that threatens the Camargue and Aigues-Mortes because of the rising waters. He is at the origin of MicroFrancophonie, the organization of micronations Francophones and Francophiles in the World.

Princess Olivia-Eugenie is just as much loved for her very playful and natural side, almost forgetting her unusual traits. Uncomfortable with the secular protocol of the princely house, it denotes by its frank talk and its incredible adventures. If the Prince is a man at the height of his task, the Princess does her best to assume her national duty when she is not under the influence of our good rosé.

Olivia-Eugenie is much better in the street or in a bar near her fellow citizens rather than at the Palace. She quickly conquered the heart of the high-mortals by her kindness and anti-formalism. It is undoubtedly the link between the treble-mortise and the crown. In 2012, she created the Prix de Constance, which rewards a person who has achieved a significant action for the good of the city and has established its foundation against cirrhosis of the liver which she considers to be the national great evil of the Principality.

We are beautiful with this princely couple constantly vivid between sense of duty and clumsy skidding. They are none the less one of the most beloved sovereign couples on the planet!

The little Prince-Heir is called Jean-Rose, he is the first of this name who was chosen by Princess Olivia-Eugenie. Playful and lively, the Prince-Heir or the "Pequelet *" (* Petit in Aigues-Mortais) has already all of a great and made a faultless at each of his official outings. At home, everyone loves it!


The first summit of MicroFrancophonie will take place in the Principality of Acute-Dead from September 23 to September 24, 2016. Many officials of MicroNations Francophones and Francophiles are expected.
These meetings will be public and we are waiting for you.
The Heads of State will be expected at the Grand Ball of the Principality's gold bucket on 25 September.
Aigues-Mortes : Le flamant, nouvelle monnaie locale

DIPLOMATIE D'AIGUES-MORTES


If the Principality is a country happy and friendly, it is nonetheless intransigent when it comes to defend the rights of man, the environment and fair trade. As a responsible micronation, the Principality of Aigues-Mortes has established diplomatic relations with many micronations around the world to form a stronger and international citizen lobby to better defend our universal values.

We are at the origin of Microfrancophonie, the Francophone organization that brings together the main active micronations in France, Belgium and Canada. This organization develops around environmental and societal topics and is enjoying growing success in the Micromonde.

Like any self-respecting country, the Principality also has a diplomatic network in many countries on all continents, thanks to the presence of ambassadors and consuls with whom we maintain regular communication.


Les sommets micronationaux

Le Grand-Duc Niels de Flandrensis, l'Empeur Olivier d'Angyalistan
et le Prince Jean-Pierre IV d'Aigues-Mortes lors de la 3ème
conférence Polination en 2015.
Since his accession to the throne, Prince Jean-Pierre IV ensures the presence and representation of Aigues-Mortes in different peaks of micronational meeting. He does so with the strong intention of giving a preponderant place to his city in this universe which is always of more interest to the media. It is about building the notoriety of our principality to better promote it because thanks to the presence of the Prince at these summits, the name of Aigues-Mortes is more exposed. These meetings also make it possible to build strong links with other micronations to convey messages and carry out concrete actions on themes and values ​​in which the Principality claims a strong citizen commitment.

The Principality of Aigues-Mortes participated in 2015 at the 3rd Polination Conference, in the Free Republic of Alcatraz, a micronation located near Perugia in Italy. At the end of this meeting, we signed a joint environmental action charter known as the "Alcatraz Environmental Treaty". Since then, the Principality has respected its commitment with concrete actions such as the creation of a local currency to boost consumption on short circuits and studying food self-sufficiency solutions. Finally, the Principality has forged close ties with the Grand Duchy of Flandrensis and the Angyalistan Empire, two micronations active in ecological action to study the implementation of more effective sensitization action on their fields. respective action.

In 2016, the Principality of Aigues-Mortes received at home 8 delegations members of Microfrancophonie. This organization brings together French micronations from around the world around a language and common values.
The first summit took place on Friday, September 23rd and Saturday, September 24th at the Nicolas Lasserre Hall in Aigues-Mortes and this event was open to the public who wanted to find out more about micronationalism and citizen opportunities. it generates. It is therefore a pedagogical summit that was discussed, leading to a real reflection on "living together" and citizen action in the future.

In 2017, the Principality of Aigues-Mortes was present at the second meeting of Microfrancophonie in Luxembourg in April. Then in Atlanta in June for the second Microcon summit, which brought together the main North American micronations. During these two international events, the Principality of Aigues-Mortes was able to present the results of its concept of alternative citizenship among which we find the launch of the local currency, the flamingo, which is today the first and only micronational currency to have legal value and to be put into circulation in a territory. The Principality of Aigues-Mortes especially supported during these 2 events, its desire to create a global micronational lobby to influence the ecological and humanitarian issues with an international organization such as the UN. But still, the Principality sees an opportunity to assist some NGOs more effectively. Diplomatic work is now focused more on the possibility of creating joint actions that can serve these purposes.

RELATIONS DIPLOMATIQUES

There are more than 400 micronations in the world today. The Principality of Aigues-Mortes has engaged diplomatic relations with the most influential and successful to date. Our goal is to create a strong citizen and international network. Some are recognized as NGO observers to the United Nations, a micronational union on some major environmental, human rights and fair trade issues can act as a lobby to influence states and / or international organizations. It is for these reasons that we attach a lot of importance to the establishment of good relations between micronations active in the World.

You will find below the list of micronations with which the principality of Aigues-Mortes has established friendly or diplomatic relations. Parenthetically, the country of origin in which micronation was created by its founder. The micronations in bold were the subject of an official visit or a friendly meeting between the Prince and their heads of state.

MicroFrancophonie

There are more than 400 micronations in the world today. Most are from the Anglo-Saxon world but they are also developing in France and other French-speaking countries. However, the micronations francophones were little considered by others, hence the need to unite to create an organization capable of giving them enough weight to make their ideas and their common values heard. Microfrancophonie was founded in 2015 by 6 micronations from France, Belgium and Canada. It is today made up of 12 members and 2 observers.
Microfrancophonie organized its first summit in Aigues-Mortes in September 2016. To learn more about the organization, we invite you to visit its website.

OFFICIAL NEWSPAPER

Aigues-Morning is the official information newspaper of the Principality of Aigues-Mortes. It is published in French, and in English since 2017. The newspaper is available free of charge on the Principality's Facebook pages and in this space in PDF format.


What is the state?

The concept of state is ambiguous because several autors
Doctrina Estrada
International law allows classification of states according to their ability to act in international relations:
- Sovereign states: they are the states with full capacity to act, that is to say, that they can exercise all their capacities as a sovereign and independent state. [3] In this case, almost all the states of the world are found, and the vast majority are members of the UN.
States with limitations of sovereignty: they are states that have limitations in their ability to act for different reasons. Within this typology we can find:
- Neutral states: those who refrain from participating in international conflicts. This neutrality can be absolute neutrality due to a constitutional provision, as in the case of Switzerland and also of Sweden between 1807 and 1993 when it maintained absolute neutrality in international affairs. But there are also neutralized states, this is a neutrality imposed by an international treaty, a constitutional provision imposed or by international penalty, was the case of Austria, which in 1956, after the withdrawal of the occupying forces of France , The United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union, drafted a constitution where it was arranged that Austria should be neutral with respect to the four signing powers.
- Sovereign states that resign to exercise their international competencies and are dependent on matters of international relations. It is usually the case of microestates that cede international relations to a third state, or around, or with which to maintain good relations. This is the case of San Marino, which entrusts international relations in Italy; That of Liechtenstein, which transfers them to Switzerland, or that of Monaco to France.
Associated free states: this is an independent state but in which another state assumes a part of its external competencies and other matters such as defense, economics or diplomatic and consular representation. This is the case with Puerto Rico regarding the United States.
Trustees: they are a kind of guarded state in a way similar to the mandates and protectorates of the League of Nations that protected or assumed the protection of a state as a precautionary or transitory measure in times of crisis. The trust status is a territory over which a trust or guardianship is established entrusting the administration to a fiduciary state under the supervision of the United Nations Trust Council. It was the case of the Federated States of Micronesia, which were supervised by the United States until 1986 or that of Papua New Guinea, which was administered by Australia until 1975.
- Sovereign states that are not internationally recognized: they are sovereign and independent states, but which, not being recognized by any other state, have a limited capacity to act. The lack of recognition may be due to an international sanction, at the expense of a third state (this is the case of the Greek opposition to the recognition of the Republic of Macedonia, and also that of Taiwan that is not recognized to avoid confrontations with the People's Republic of China, although it maintains a great international activity) or by disinterest (it is the case of Somaliland). Another case was the Bantustans between 1940 and 1994, only recognized by South Africa and rejected by the rest of the international community.

INDEPENDENTIST DESIRE IN MADEIRA

Flag of Madeira
The history of Madeira begins with the discovery of the islands by Portugal in 1419.
In 1419 two captains of Prince Henry the Navigator, João Gonçalves Zarco and Tristão Vaz Teixeira, were driven by a storm to the island they called Porto Santo, or Holy Harbour, in gratitude for their rescue from shipwreck. The next year an expedition was sent to populate the island, and, Madeira being described, they made for it, and took possession on behalf of the Portuguese crown, together with captain Bartolomeu Perestrello.

Since the 17th century, Madeira's most important product has been its wine, sugar production having since moved on to Brazil, São Tomé and Príncipe, and elsewhere. Madeira wine was perhaps the most popular luxury beverage in the colonial Western Hemisphere during the 17th and 18th centuries. The British Empire occupied Madeira as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, a friendly occupation which concluded in 1814 when the island was returned to Portugal, and the British did much to popularise Madeira wine.
When, after the death of king John VI of Portugal, his usurper son Miguel of Portugal seized power from the rightful heir, his niece Maria II, and proclaimed himself 'Absolute King', Madeira held out for the Queen under the governor José Travassos Valdez until Miguel sent an expeditionary force and the defence of the island was overwhelmed by crushing force. Valdez was forced to flee to England under the protection of the Royal Navy (September 1828).

In 1891 a census revealed the population on Madeira to be 132,223 inhabitants.

In 1914 all German property was confiscated in Madeira, including the ship, the Colmar, built in 1912 which was interned in Madeira in 1914. In 1916 it was renamed Machico and in 1925 it was bought from the Portuguese Government and renamed Luso; in 1955 it was scrapped after grounding damage.
On March 9, 1916, Germany declared war on Portugal, followed by Portugal declaring war on Germany and starting to organise Portuguese troops to go to the Western Front. The effect of the Portuguese participation in World War I was first felt in Madeira on December 3, 1916 when the German U-boat, U-38, captained by Max Valentiner went into Funchal harbour on Madeira and torpedoed and sank 3 ships, CS Dacia (1,856 tons),[4] SS Kanguroo (2,493 tons) and Surprise (680 tons). In 1917 on December 12, two German U-boats, again bombarded Funchal, Madeira.

WWII

Portugal in World War II was neutral, but Salazar's decision to stick with the oldest alliance in the world, cemented by the Treaty of Windsor (1386) between Portugal and England, which is still in force today, meant that the Anglo-Portuguese Alliance allowed Madeira to help the allies and in July 1940 around 2,000 Gibraltarian [11] Evacuees were shipped to Madeira
On November 12, 1940 Hitler issued Führer Directive No. 18 in which there was the possibility to invade Portugal and he also said "I also request that the problem of occupying Madeira and the Azores should be considered, together with the advantages and disadvantages which this would entail for our sea and air warfare. The results of these investigations are to be submitted to me as soon as possible."
On the 28 May 1944 the first repatriation party leaves Madeira for Gibraltar and by the end of 1944 only 520 non-priority evacuees remained on the island.
On 1 July 1976, following the democratic revolution of 1974, Portugal granted political autonomy to Madeira, celebrated on Madeira Day. The region now has its own government and legislative assembly.
12 September 1978, the creation of the Madeira flag. The blue part symbolizes the sea surrounding the island and the yellow represents the abundance of life on the island. The red cross of the Order of Christ, with a white cross on it, is identical to the one on the flag of Prince Henry's ships that discovered the island.

MADEIRA'S INDEPENDENCE DESIRE

27 years after the Portuguese Revolution of 25th April, 1974, the Isle of Madeira again has an independence movement. This time it is not the extremist FLAMA, which launched grenade attacks against state institutions in the “hot “ days after the coup which toppled Portugal’s fascist regime, but the Secretary General of the main political force in Madeira, the PSD. The archipelago of Madeira is 1,000 km South-West of Lisbon in the Atlantic Ocean. Populated by Portuguese explorers since 1420, these islands are autonomous regions within Portuguese Territory, along with the Azores Islands, 700 km to the west. Being islands, the local culture and way of speaking have their own characteristics but the independence movement which appeared after the Revolution never really gained bases. Now, however, Jaime Ramos, General Secretary of the Social Democratic Party (PSD), in government in the regional parliament of Madeira but the opposition party in continental Portugal, has launched a flagrant bid for autonomy: “Autonomy is a fight which only ends when all the political, administrative and constitutional mechanisms arrive at what can really be called Independence….We, the people of Madeira, have more than enough reasons to continue to fight for Madeira and Porto Santo to one day be free from the colonial power which unfortunately the socialists and social-fascists wish to impose on the freedom we have gained”. The archipelago of Madeira is an important tourist destination and is becoming an investment centre for off-shore financial operations. Madeira is the main island, 57km. x 22 km, with around 250,000 people. As countries pull together inside the European Union, regions pull apart as Europe sees a greater integration at the institutional level and more cultural freedom and an increased capacity for local expression at the regional one.

FLAMA

Flag of the FLAMA
The Liberation Front of the Madeira Archipelago was an independentista movement of Madeira with respect to Portugal created in reaction to the hypothesis that continental Portugal evolved towards a communist regime.1 Born alongside the Liberation Front of the Azores, the independence movement of the Azores and with the same duration and objectives, FLAMA carried out armed actions in the years 1974-1975 during the PREC (Revolutionary Process in Progress), claiming independence of the archipelago. Later with the defenitive establishment of the democratic regime, the independence sentiment in Madeira and Azores was appeased.

PONTINHA'S DESIRE OF INDEPENDENCE

The difference between Madeira's independentists and Pontinha's independentists is the size of the territory and of course, the fact that in Madeira 100% of population have the desire of Independence.
The Principality of Pontinha is a micronation on an islet, which is physically joined to Madeira island, Portugal. King Carlos I of Portugal sold the islet on October 9, 1903 to the Blandy family of Madeira, who were involved in Madeira wine. The money was needed by the king to develop the port of Funchal.
The principality was purchased by the art teacher Renato de Barros in 2000 for £19,500 from the Blandy family. Renato Barros I communicated on November 30, 2007, confirming the independence of the island from Portugal, which first occurred in 1903.
The Royal Charter of October 26, 1903 has the following content:

Dom Carlos I (...) does well to transmit to him by irrevocable and pure sale all the possession and dominion that in that building had the National Treasury for (...) the bidder, his heirs and successors (...)

The principality introduced bitcoin in December 2015, as the official currency by the Prime Minister of Pontinha Joby Weeks.
In February 2017, José Manuel Coelho asked for political asylum in the self-declared principality, which was granted by D. Renato Barros I.