Sunday, 4 February 2018

Leaders of Catalan Independence

ARTUR MAS GAVARRÓ
Catalan politician and economist. He was member of the CIU party. He has occupied several public and political charges in Catalonia. From 2010 to 2016 he was President of Catalonia. His mandate has been historical. When he was President, the Catalan Independence Movement began to spread inside Catalan society. In 2012, a big rally took place in Barcelona for claiming independence. From that moment, the political situation in Catalonia changed. Artur Mas had to make elections several times. In 2014, he made an independentist query in Catalonia (not a referendum).

CARLES PUIGDEMONT CASAMAJÓ
Activist of the Call for Solidarity in Defense of the Catalan Language, Culture and Nation. He belonged to the Nationalist Jovent of Catalonia (JNC). 
He was the President of the Association of Municipalities for Independence and mayor of the city of Girona.
When Artur Mas left the Presidency in 2016, Puigdemont became the President of Catalonia. He is considered as the main Leader of the Catalan Secessionist Movement. He made an illegal referendum of self-deteremination. On 10 of October, 2017 he proclaimed the Republic of Catalonia and he suspend it.
On October 27, 2017, from the tribune of the Parliament of Catalonia the unilateral Declaration of independence of Catalonia of 2017 (DUI) 18 will be proceeded under the results of the referendum on October 1 but against the provisions of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, the Senate approved the measures proposed by the government under Article 155 of the Spanish Constitution, including the dismissal of Carles Puigdemont as President of the Generalitat of Catalonia and the entire Government of Catalonia, immediately after it was published in the Official State Bulletin.
However, this document (DUI) was neither voted on nor registered in the Parliament, so it lacked legal validity, as Puigdemont recognized it a few days later.
On October 29, 2017, he embarked on a trip to Brussels. On October 31, 2017, at a press conference held in Brussels , demanded guarantees of a fair trial to accede to return to Spain, affirming his intention to stay in Brussels and maintain his political activity from there.
In 21 december, elections took place in Catalonia. The secessionist parties won absolute majority in the Parliament, this is why they wanted to make Puigdemont President of Catalonia again.

ANTONIO BAÑOS BONCOMPAIN
Politician, musician and Spanish writer. He was the head of the list of the CUP in the elections to the Parliament of Catalonia in 2015 and was elected deputy in the Catalan Parliament.
On July 30, 2015, CUP candidate for elect was elected in Barcelona for the Catalan elections in September, 9 in which the formation won 10 seats.1 On January 4, 2016, it announced that it was renouncing its deputy's act. after the decision of the CUP not to support the investiture as president of the Generalitat of Catalonia to Artur Mas, candidate of ''Junts pel Si'', however on January 10 he participated as a deputy in the election of Carles Puigdemont as President of the Generalitat voting in favor.

ORIOL JUNQUERAS VÍES
Oriol Junqueras i Vies, historian and politician, defends the "right to vote for the self-determination of the Catalan people". He is a well-known independenctist. For a lot of people, Junqueras is the biggest leader of the Catalan Secessionist movement. He has not been President of Catalonia, but he has always occupied public and political charges. He has always worked with the hightest catalan authorities to bring to Catalonia the right of self-determination. He is a politician that has spend its total political careers in claiming independence for Catalonia. When Artur Mas was the Preesident, Junqueras occupied a main role, he agreed with Mas to create an independentist query on 2014. Junqueras has always been present in a lot of media, claiming for independence. He has been the leader of the opposition, and when Puigdemont became President, Junqueras has been Vice-President.
On October 27, 2017, from the tribune of the Parliament of Catalonia, the unilateral Declaration of independence of Catalonia of 2017 (DUI) 14 will be carried out under the results of the referendum on October 1 but against the provisions of The Spanish Constitution of 1978, the Senate approved the measures proposed by the government under Article 155 of the Spanish Constitution, including the dismissal of Carles Puigdemont as President of the Generalitat of Catalonia and the entire Government of Catalonia, including Oriol Junqueras ( Vice president). Immediately afterwards it was published in the Official State Gazette. For this reason, on 2 of November, 2017, Junqueras was imprisoned.

GABRIEL RUFIÁN ROMERO
Politician in Catalonia. He is an independentist. He has developed some political charges for ERC party. His political position it is not one of the most important of Catalan secessionism, but he became very famous, due to its polemical acts in the Spanish Parliament. He loves twitter and he always write something that becomes polemical. Rufián it is one of the most known independentist politician for its polemics.

JOAQUIM TORRA I PLA
Quim Torra is a lawyer, editor and Catalan writer. In 2015 he was appointed president of Òmnium Cultural in replacement of Muriel Casals, a position that he transferred to Jordi Cuixart at the end of the same year.
n February 2011 he replaced Agustí Bassols as president of the sovereignty and sovereignty association and the following month he was elected to the permanent council of the Catalan National Assembly.
On March 7, 2016 he was appointed director of the Center for Contemporary Subject Studies of the Generalitat of Catalonia.
He also collaborates in various media, such as the digital magazine Esguard. In May of 2015 he was appointed director of the Magazine of Catalonia.
In the elections to the Parliament of Catalonia in 2017, he was elected to the list of Together for Catalonia.

ALEXANDRE DEULOFEU TORRES
Alexandre Deulofeu i Torres (l'Armentera, 1903 - Figueres, 1978) was a politician and philosopher of Catalan history. He wrote about what he called mathematics of history, a cyclical theory on the evolution of civilizations.
His masterpiece titled The Mathematics of History.
The statement of the mathematical law that, according to him, determines the evolution of the towns is summarized in the following points (chapter III of The mathematics of history in Catalan, edition of 1967):
1. All peoples go through periods of large demographic divisions, alternating with other periods of great unification or imperialist times.
2. The periods of large fractionation last for six and a half centuries. The ages of great unification last ten centuries and a half. The evolutionary cycle comprises, then, seventeen centuries.
3. During this evolutionary process, towns pass through perfectly established phases to reach the end of the cycle to occupy the same position as at the beginning.
4. The evolutionary cycle includes all the orders of human activity, that is, we must consider, in addition to a political cycle, a social, artistic, philosophical, scientific cycle ...
5. All the towns follow the same evolution, but this one is outposted or delayed according to the geographic position of each country.
6. The creative force is not the same for all peoples. For each cycle there is an area of ​​maximum creative intensity, and this area moves from one cycle to the next in the same sense of the general process. This one advances in Europe, from the East towards the Mediterranean West and passes after the Iberian Peninsula to Gaul, follows the British Isles, continues through the Germanic peoples and finally reaches the Nordic and Slavic peoples.
7. The imperialist nuclei that give rise to the times of great political unification follow perfect biological processes, identical to each other and with a longevity that lasts from five to six centuries.
8. The transformation of the political and social regimes does not follow any constant or descending line, but alternatively advances and retreats, those more intense than the others, which results in a broken line. The result of this line is equivalent to an advance in a certain sense. It is called "law of the two steps forward and one back".