Saturday, 11 November 2017

Where Terra Nullius creates new countries?

Terra nullius is a Latin expression meaning "nobody's land", and is a principle sometimes used in international law to describe territory that may be acquired by a state's occupation of it.

Terra Nullius effect on micronations is enormous. In history a lot of man wanted to become the owners or the governors of a territory which they don't own. In the past this situation was very typical. Each time a big empire conquered territories around the world, they conquered because of the ''excuse'' of Terra Nullius. These territory has not owner, so I will occupy it and I will be the new owner. Thanks to the end of colonization, Terra Nullius has been a term not so used in the 20th century as it was in the past. Perhaps 20th Century politicians though that this term would dissapear in the future. But If they thought that, it is not correct. Our world of the 21st Century, continues having man and woman who want to have territories only by occupying it. A lot of micronations have born due to the Terra Nullius. Thanks to our technologies like Internet, more and more micronationalists are employing this term to cliam territories. So if historians thought that this term will be obsoled in the future, there were wrong. Terra Nullius will continue being an intersting term, more and more used in the future, so it is not only a term of the past.

Claims of terra nullius

Several territories have been claimed to be terra nullius. In a minority of those claims, international and domestic courts have ruled on whether the territory is or was terra nullius or not.

Bir Tawil

Bir Tawil is an example of a territory often claimed to be terra nullius. Between Egypt and Sudan is the 2,060 km2 (800 sq mi) landlocked territory of Bir Tawil, which was created by a discrepancy between borders drawn in 1899 and 1902. One border placed Bir Tawil under Sudan's control and the Hala'ib Triangle under Egypt's; the other border did the reverse. Both countries assert the border that lets them claim Hala'ib, which is significantly larger and next to the Red Sea, with the side effect that Bir Tawil is unclaimed by either nation. The area is, however, under the de facto control of Egypt, although it is not shown on official Egyptian maps. Bir Tawil has no settled population but the land is used by Bedouins who roam the area.
In June 2014, Jeremiah Heaton planted a flag in Bir Tawil to claim the region as a new sovereign state, the Kingdom of North Sudan, and subsequently announced the establishment of self-styled "embassies" elsewhere in the world. However, no governmental entity has recognized this claim.

Antarctica

Territorial claims in Antarctica, with the unclaimed part of West Antarctica shown in off-white. In the purple Norwegian sector the area near the South Pole may be unclaimed because in 2015 Norway extended its claim to include it, a violation of the Antarctic Treaty.
Another example of terra nullius is Antarctica. While several countries have made claims to parts of Antarctica in the first half of the 20th century, the remainder, including most of Marie Byrd Land (the portion east from 150°W to 90°W), has not been claimed by any sovereign nation. Signatories to the Antarctic Treaty of 1959 agreed not to make such claims, except the Soviet Union and the United States, who reserved the right to make a claim.

Australia

Australian Aborigines had inhabited Australia for over 50,000 years before European settlement, which commenced in 1788. Indigenous customs, rituals and laws were unwritten. It has been claimed that Australia was considered terra nullius at the time of settlement.
In 1971, in the controversial case of Milirrpum v Nabalco Pty Ltd, popularly known as the Gove land rights case, Justice Richard Blackburn ruled that Australia had been considered "desert and uncultivated" (a term which included territory in which resided "uncivilized inhabitants in a primitive state of society") before European settlement, and therefore, by the law that applied at the time, open to be claimed by right of occupancy, and that there was no such thing as native title in Australian law. The concept of terra nulliuswas not considered in this case, however. Court cases in 1977, 1979, and 1982 – brought by or on behalf of Aboriginal activists – challenged Australian sovereignty on the grounds that terra nullius had been improperly applied, therefore Aboriginal sovereignty should still be regarded as being intact. The courts rejected these cases, but the Australian High Court left the door open for a reassessment of whether the continent should be considered "settled" or "conquered". Later, on 1 February 2014, the traditional owners of land on Badu Island received freehold title to 10,000 hectare in an act of the Queensland Government.


In 1982, Eddie Mabo and four other Torres Strait Islanders from Mer (Murray Island) started legal proceedings to establish their traditional land ownership. This led to Mabo v Queensland (No 1). In 1992, after ten years of hearings before the Queensland Supreme Court and the High Court of Australia, the latter court found that the Mer people had owned their land prior to annexation by Queensland. The ruling thus had far-reaching significance for the land claims of both Torres Strait Islanders and other Indigenous Australians.
The controversy over Australian land ownership erupted into the so-called "History wars."

Svalbard

Scotland or Great Britain, the Netherlands, and Denmark–Norway all claimed sovereignty over the archipelago of Svalbard in the seventeenth century, but none permanently occupied it. Expeditions from each of these polities visited Svalbard principally during the summer for whaling, with the first two sending a few wintering parties in the 1620s and 1630s.
During the 19th century, both Norway and Russia made strong claims to the archipelago. In 1909, Italian jurist Camille Piccioni described Spitzbergen, as it was then known, as terra nullius:
The issue would have been simpler if Spitzbergen, until now terra nullius, could have been attributed to a single state, for reasons of neighbouring or earlier occupation. But this is not the case and several powers can, for different reasons, make their claims to this territory which still has no master.
The territorial dispute was eventually resolved by the Svalbard Treaty of 9 February 1920 which recognized Norwegian sovereignty over the islands.

Eastern Greenland

Norway occupied and claimed parts of (then uninhabited) Eastern Greenland in 1931, claiming that it constituted terra nullius. They called the territory Erik the Red's Land. The matter was decided by the Permanent Court of International Justice against Norway. The Norwegians accepted the ruling and withdrew their claim.

Scarborough Shoal

The Philippines and the People's Republic of China both claim the Scarborough Shoal or Panatag Shoal or Huangyan Island, nearest to the island of Luzon, located in the South China Sea. The Philippines claims it under the principles of terra nullius and EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone). China's claim refers to its discovery in the 13th century by Chinese fishermen. The former Nationalist government on the Chinese mainland had also claimed this territory after the founding of the Republic of China in 1911. However, despite China's position of non-participation based on the UNCLOS, the 2016 PCA denied the lawfulness of China's "Nine Dash Line" claim. Despite this, China continues to build artificial islands in the South China Sea and Scarborough Shoal is a prime location for another one. Chinese ships have been seen in the vicinity of the shoal. Observers of the photos have concluded that the ships lack dredging equipment and therefore represent no imminent threat of reclamation work.

South Island of New Zealand

In 1840, Lieutenant William Hobson, following instructions of the British government, pronounced the southern island of New Zealand to be uninhabited by civilized peoples, which qualified the land to be terra nullius, and therefore fit for the Crown's political occupation. Hobson's decision was also influenced by a small party of French settlers heading towards Akaroa on Banks Peninsula to settle in 1840.

Canada

Joseph Trutch, the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia, insisted that First Nations had never owned land, and thus could safely be ignored. It is for this reason that most of British Columbia remains unceded land.
In Guerin v. The Queen, a Supreme Court of Canada decision on aboriginal rights, the Court stated that the government has a fiduciary duty toward the First Nations of Canada and established aboriginal title to be a sui generis right. Since, there has been a more complicated debate and a general narrowing of the definition of "fiduciary duty".

Guano Islands

The Guano Islands Act of 18 August 1856 enabled citizens of the U.S. to take possession of islands containing guano deposits. The islands can be located anywhere, so long as they are not occupied and not within the jurisdiction of other governments. It also empowers the President of the United States to use the military to protect such interests, and establishes the criminal jurisdiction of the United States.

Pinnacle Islands (Senkaku/Diaoyu)

A disputed archipelago in the East China Sea, the uninhabited Senkaku Islands, are claimed by Japan to have become part of its territory as terra nullius in January 1895, following the First Sino-Japanese War. However, this interpretation is not accepted by the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (Taiwan), both of whom claim sovereignty over the islands.

Burkina Faso and Niger

A narrow strip of land adjacent to two territorial markers along the Burkina Faso–Niger border was claimed by neither country until the International Court of Justice settled a more extensive territorial dispute in 2013. The former unclaimed territory was awarded to Niger.

Clipperton Island

The sovereignty of Clipperton Island was settled by arbitration between France and Mexico. King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy rendered a decision in 1931 that " 'the sovereignty of Clipperton Island belongs to France from the date of November 17, 1858.' The Mexican claim was rejected for lack of proof of prior Spanish discovery and, in any event, no effective occupation by Mexico before 1858, when the island was therefore territorium nullius, and the French occupation then was sufficient and legally continuing."

Rockall

According to Ian Mitchell, Rockall was terra nullius until it was claimed by the United Kingdom in 1955. It was formally annexed in 1972.

Sealand

One of the few micronations to control a physical location, the Principality of Sealand has existed de facto since 1967 on an abandoned British anti-aircraft gun tower in the North Sea. At the point when it was taken over, the tower had been abandoned by the Royal Navy and was outside British territorial waters. Paddy Roy Bates, who styled himself Prince, claimed that it was terra nullius. Despite rejecting this claim on the basis that the tower is an artificial structure, the British government has never attempted to evict the Sealanders, and a court in 1968 confirmed that at that point, the tower was outside British jurisdiction

West Sahara

At the request of Morocco, the International Court of Justice in 1975 addressed whether West Sahara was terra nullius at the time of Spanish colonization in 1885. The court found in its advisory opinion that West Sahara was not terra nullius at that time.

What about Terra Nullius in International Waters?

International waters have always oppenenned a discussion by libertarians and micronationalists. We can supose, that everything which belongs to everyone, belongs to no one. International waters haven't been claimed by anyone, and everyone can interpret that as a terra nullius. This is what most libertarians think about international waters, and perhaps this is why the Seasteading Institute is a real project where several international investors are giving its trust to them.

Republic of Cospaia

The writing is still there, carved on the lintel of the little church: “Perpetua et firma libertas”. It is the fleeting, almost hidden trace of an incredible story: that of Cospaia, a small town in the Upper Tiber Valley that, for nearly four hundred years, was the smallest republic in the world.
Anarcho-capitalism has worked, yes. One country in Italy was anarcho-capitalist during a lot of centuries, but you won't release of which country I am talking about: the Reppublic of Cospaia. During 4 centuries, this little republic flourished in the center of Italy without any government, without military intervention, without bureaucracy and without taxes. This is an utopia for the modern world which we live in.

The success of this little republic that shos us that we need very few resources for achieving the flourish of a nation. So if Cospaia was not a state, why is it called a Republic. Well, it was not a republic in the strict legal sense. Some old men brought together in the church of Cospaia and they discussed about the village. This fact of being gattered together, is the expression which gives to this anarcho-capitalist community, the name of Republic. It was a territory without sea access.

The territory of Cospaia was about 3.3Km2. Only 300 people lived there, among the centuries. 300 people and 100 household lived in this anarcho-capitalist community during 4 centuries.
In the beginning, the population was illiterate, with the exception of the priest of the parish. The republic was never invaded by foreign powers, except during the Napoleonic Era, but they survived to this occupation.
In spite of being a community without sea access, and with the most of the population without education and being excluded of the most important trade routes, Cospaia got a big prosperity. During 400 years they prevent the occupation of foreign forces.
The history of Cospaia begins in 1440. During this period of time, the Italic Peninsula was formed by small kingdoms and states. One of this kingdoms were the Papal States and it was governed by the Pope, in Rome. His northern neighbour was the Republic of Florence, ruled by the Medicis. In 1432, Eugene IV was elected Pope and took a loan of 25,000 gold florins to Juan de Cosme de Medici, one of the most important bankers of the epoque and the most important man in the finances of the Republic of Florence. It was not an era of Central Banks and fiduciary money, inclusive the goverments had th offer warranties for obtaining a loan. So the Pope put the town of Borgo Sansepolcro and its surroundings in the upper part of the Tiber Valley as guarantee against the loan.
After 10 years, the Papal States couldn't pay the loan and the topographs both of Florence as of the Papal States agreed that of the new limits between the states, wouldn't be a river in the upper part of the Tibet, but the topographs made a mistake. There was more than one river in the region. A tributary in the high part was divided in two just where the town of Cospaia was located.
Although the residents of Cospaia were illiterate, they immediately realized their good fortune, since they were now outside the jurisdiction of both the pontifical states and the Republic of Florence. The people in Cospaia quickly declared themselves as an Independent Republic. The rulers of the Pontifical States and of the Republic of Florence found it valuable to have an "intermediate state" between their territories, and none pressed to incorporate Cospaia into their state. Thus began 385 years of anarchy.
In the beginning Cospaia's economy was based on barter and despite the lack of a strong currency or education, the people of Cospaia were better than the neighboring towns that were under the power of the state. Like an anarchist republic, they had no taxes to pay, they did not have arbitrary rules imposed by rulers to benefit those with good connections. Cospaia's men were not recruited to fight in the wars for Rome or Florence, and since they had no rulers representing them, they had no one who could engage them in tangled alliances that could be counterproductive and could lead them to war. The inhabitants of Cospaia were free to make exchanges and raise their families in the way they believed to be correct. Not having rulers allowed people to use in the most profitable way their time and energy.
In 1574 the people of Cospaia discovered an extremely lucrative use of their time and talent. A crop of the new world was introduced, which exerts influence in the region to this day. The crop was tobacco. Tobacco has been extremely popular throughout history, wherever it has been introduced, and in Renaissance Italy it was not to be the exception. Cospaia was soon known for its high quality tobacco. This is in addition to the demand for tobacco given the restrictions imposed by the states in the Italian peninsula on the cultivation and use of tobacco. Many people think that banning tobacco use is a twentieth-century invention, however the morality police were alive and well in the 17th century as well. In 1624 Pope Urban VIII published a papal bull making the use of tobacco in any sacred place punished with excommunication. The ban was maintained until 1724 when it was abolished by Pope Benedict VIII. Of course, these anti-tobacco regulations only benefited Cospaia's economy. The fall in supply and the absence of regulations or taxes made Cospaia the center of tobacco exchange. Soon stores were set up to take advantage of this lucrative business. Many of these warehouses were run by Jews from Genoa, Livorno, Civitavecchia, Naples and Ancona. Jews in Italy were a minority persecuted and closely watched by the surrounding states. On many occasions they were forbidden to own a property and were forbidden from trading with Christians. So the economy of laissez faire Cospaia allowed to survive and prosper this persecuted minority despite the aggressions of the states that were in the surroundings.
Throughout its history, Cospaia had no rulers, no judicial power, and no written laws except for the phrase "Perpetua et Firma Libertas," which was inscribed in his church in 1610. The approximate translation, "Firme and Eterna Libertad . "
Disputes were handled by the heads of the families or the local priest. Mediators were chosen for their integrity rather than for their political connections. There is no indication that Cospaia was a violent place. If it had been, its inhabitants would have adhered to the papal states or to the Republic of Florence. Instead, the opposite happened. People moved en masse to Cospaia because it allowed them to have opportunities that did not exist in neighboring states.
Cospaia is described as a "lawless" place, and inhabited by "smugglers," and of course these accusations were true. Cospaia had no laws except for Perpetua et Firma Libertas. Because almost everything that entered the pontifical states or the Republic of Florence was taxed, anything that Cospaia left was "contraband." In the 18th century, Cospaia had gone from being a harmless little village to being a tax-free property center. It was not only the tobacco capital in Italy, but also textiles, groceries, and other goods circulated without taxes through Cospaia. The rulers of the neighboring states were naturally offended that someone was making money and they were not getting their share. They began to call Cospaia a "lair of lawless smugglers." There are reports that the Pope and the Grand Duke of Tuscany corresponded on how to solve the problem of "contraband."
For much of Cospaia's history, they had evaded the anger of their larger neighbors because they were small, and the rulers of the neighboring states generally had bigger problems than the minimal loss of income they suffered at the hands of Cospaia's free market.
In 1826 the state finally had enough of the resounding success of Cospaia, and the Pope together with the Grand Duke of Tuscany caused the small Republic to go hungry and forced the remaining 14 heads of family to sign the "subjugation act" thus ending 385 years of freedom and anarchy. As compensation, each region was allowed to grow half a million tobacco plants (its cultivation was banned everywhere), residents were also compensated with a silver coin bearing the image of the Pope. The coin eventually became known as the "papetto", combining the Italian words for Pope and small, indicating how little they had received in exchange for giving up their freedom. To this day the people of Cospaia hold an annual festival to celebrate the freedoms they once enjoyed. If you are ever in Italy visit El Banquete de Cospaia.
It is tempting to ask what would have happened if Cospaia had remained free until this day. Could they have survived in the modern era like San Marino or Liechtenstein? So tempting that these questions are, I think that Cospaia still has important lessons to teach us. After all, they were an anarchist republic that survived and thrived for 385 years. They are 385 years without taxes, wars, rulers or regulations. I challenge anyone to name a country with a better record.
Today, Cospaia remains a small town and is now part of San Giustino. The road travelling through town — via della repubblica, or “the way of the Republic” — pays homage to their roots.
The tradition of the town is not forgotten. In fact, each year, the former Republic (as it still is called) holds a festival celebrating the rich history of Cospaia. The land is still as beautiful as ever, containing the fields and picturesque landscapes that no doubt captivated generations of the free men and women of Cospaia.





Constitution of Lostisland

Preamble

We, the multinational people of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, united by a common faith in our land, establishing human rights and freedoms, civil peace and accord, preserving the historically established unity of the state, proceeding from the universally recognised principles of equality and self-determination of peoples, belief in good and justice, asserting the firmness of its democratic basis, striving to ensure the well-being and prosperity of Lostisland, proceeding from the responsibility for our Fatherland before present and future generations, recognising ourselves as part of a World community adopt the following document as our constitution.
Chapter I The Fundamentals of the Constitutional System

Article I
The Federal Republic of Lostisland is an unofficial international membership organization emulating a nation state and operating with a republican governmental system.
The names “Federal Republic of Lostisland” and “Lostisland” shall be equal.

Article II
The only source of power in the Federal Republic of Lostisland are Lostisland’s “citizens” – individuals who filed the application form and were admitted as members of the organization, or who were born to a citizen of Lostisland, or who obtained citizenship via bilateral agreements.
The citizens exercise their power directly and also indirectly through elections.
The supreme direct expression of the citizens’ power of the people shall be referenda and free elections.
No one may usurp power in Lostisland. Seizure of power or usurping state authority shall be prosecuted under federal law.

Article III
As part of emulating a nation state, the Federal Republic of Lostisland may declare symbolic “sovereignty” over land plots. Such “sovereignty” shall not be treated as a declaration of a territorial dispute, but rather as part of Lostisland’s cultural heritage.
The sovereignty of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall cover the whole of its territory.

Article IV
The Federal Republic of Lostisland consists of Federations which shall all be equal subjects of the Federal Republic of Lostisland.
A federal subject shall have its own legislation and executive body. Such legislation may not overrule that of the Federal Republic of Lostisland as a whole.
The federal structure of Lostisland is based on its state integrity, the unity of the system of state authority, the division of authority and powers between the bodies of state power of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and bodies of state power of the federal subjects, the equality and self-determination of peoples in the Federal Republic of Lostisland.

Article V
Citizenship of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall be acquired and terminated according to federal law; it shall be one and equal.
A citizen of the Federal Republic of Lostisland may not be deprived of his or her citizenship, except in cases as decided by a court of law.

Article VI
State power in the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall be exercised on the basis of its division into legislative, executive and judicial. The legislative, executive and judicial authorities shall be independent.

Article VII
State power in the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall be exercised by the Federal President, the Federal Prime Minister, the Government, and the courts.
State power in the federal subjects of Lostisland shall be exercised by the bodies of state authority created by them.

Article VIII
In the Federal Republic of Lostisland local self-government shall be recognised and guaranteed. Local self-government shall be independent within the limits of its authority. The bodies of local self-government shall not be part of the system of state authorities.

Article IX
In the Federal Republic of Lostisland ideological and/or political diversity shall be recognised.
Public associations shall be equal before the law.
The creation and activities of public associations whose aims and actions are aimed at a forced change of the fundamental principles of the constitutional system and at violating the integrity of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, at undermining its security, at setting up armed units, and at instigating social, racial, national and religious strife shall be prohibited.

Article X
The Federal Republic of Lostisland is a secular state. No state or obligatory religion may be established.
Religious associations shall be separate from the State and shall be equal before the law.

Article XI
The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall have the supreme juridical force, direct application and shall be used on the whole territory of the Federal Republic of Lostisland. Laws and other legal acts adopted in the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall not contradict the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland.
The bodies of state authority, bodies of local self-government, officials, private citizens and their associations shall be obliged to observe the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and her laws.
Laws shall be officially published. Unpublished laws shall be considered non-existant.

Article XII
The English language shall have the status of Official language.
The Dutch, Turkish, Russian, Spanish and Lostislandic languages shall have the status of Regional language.

Article XIII
The provisions of the present chapter of the Constitution comprise the fundamental principles of the constitutional system of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, and may not be changed without a 66% majority in a referendum.
Chapter II The Rights and Freedoms of Man and Women

Article XIV
In the Federal Republic of Lostisland recognition and guarantees shall be provided for the rights and freedoms of man and citizen according to the universally recognised principles and norms of international law and according to the present Constitution.
Fundamental human rights and freedoms are inalienable and shall be enjoyed by everyone from the day of birth.

Article XV
All people shall be equal before the law and courts.
The State, within the limits of her authority, shall guarantee the equality of rights and freedoms of man and women, regardless of sex, race, nationality, language, origin, property, official status, place of residence, religion, convictions, membership of public associations, and also of other circumstances. All forms of limitations of human rights on social, racial, national, linguistic or religious grounds shall be banned.

Article XVI
Everyone shall have the right to the inviolability of private life, personal and family secrets, the protection of one’s honour and good name.
Everyone shall have the right to privacy of correspondence, of telephone conversations, postal, telegraph and other messages. Limitations of this right shall be allowed only by court decision.
Collection, keeping, use and dissemination of information about the private life of a person shall not be allowed without his or her consent.

Article XVII
Everyone shall be guaranteed the freedom of conscience, the freedom of religion, including the right to profess individually or together with others any religion or to profess no religion at all, to freely choose, possess and disseminate religious and other views and act according to them.

Article XVIII
Everyone shall be guaranteed the freedom of ideas and speech.
No one may be forced to express his views and convictions or to reject them.
Everyone shall have the right to freely look for, receive, transmit, produce and distribute information by any legal means. The list of data comprising state secrets shall be determined by a federal law.
The freedom of mass communication shall be guaranteed.

Article XIX
Everyone shall have the right to association. The freedom of activity of public association shall be guaranteed.
No one may be compelled to join any association and remain in it.

Article XX
Citizens of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall have the right to participate in managing state affairs both directly and through their representatives.
Citizens of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall have the right to elect and be elected to state bodies of power and local self-government bodies, and also to participate in referenda.
Citizens of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall enjoy equal access to state service.
Citizens of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall have the right to participate in administering justice.

Article XXI
Citizens of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall have the right to address personally, as well as to submit individual and collective appeals to state bodies and local self-government bodies.

Article XXII
The right of private property shall be protected by law.
The right of inheritance shall be guaranteed.

Article XXIII
Everyone shall be guaranteed the freedom of literary, artistic, scientific, technical and other types of creative activity, and teaching. Intellectual property shall be protected by law.

Article XXIV
Everyone shall be guaranteed judicial protection of his rights and freedoms.
Decisions and actions (or inaction) of bodies of state authority and local self-government, public associations and officials may be appealed against in court.

Article XXV
No one may be deprived of the right to the consideration of his or her case in that court and by that judge in whose cognizance the given case is according to law.
Everyone accused of committing a crime shall be considered innocent until his guilt is proved and confirmed by the sentence of a court which has come into legal force.
The accused shall not be obliged to prove his innocence.

Article XXVI
No one may be convicted twice for one and the same crime.
In administering justice it shall not be allowed to use evidence received by violating federal law.

Article XXVII
No one shall be obliged to give evidence incriminating themselves, a husband or wife or close relatives the range of whom is determined by federal law.

Article XXVIII
A law introducing or aggravating responsibility shall not have retrospective effect.
No one may bear responsibility for an action which was not regarded as a crime when it was committed. If after violating the law the relevant responsibility is eliminated or mitigated, the new law shall be applied.

Article XXIX
In conditions of a state of emergency, in order to ensure the safety of citizens and the protection of the constitutional system and in accordance with federal constitutional law certain limitations may be placed on human rights and freedoms with the establishment of the extent and duration of such limitations.
The military forces of the Federal Republic of Lostisland may take measure as they see necessary during a state of emergency.
A state of emergency may be declared in the whole territory of the Federal Republic of Lostisland by a federal law signed by the Federal President and Federal Prime Minister.

Article XXX
Defence of the Fatherland shall be a duty and obligation of citizens of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, both male and female.

Article XXXI
A citizen of the Federal Republic of Lostisland may exercise his or her rights and duties in full from the age of 18.

Article XXXII
The provisions of the present chapter of the Constitution comprise the Rights and Freedoms of the Man and Women of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, and may not be changed without a 66% majority in a referendum.
Chapter III The Federal Structure

Article XXXIII
The Federal Republic of Lostisland comprises of the following federal subjects:
Federation of Hunter
Federation of Belastrova
Federation of Jax
The admission to the Federal Republic of Lostisland and the creation in it of a new subject shall be carried out according to the rules established by the federal constitutional law.

Article XXXIV
The territory of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall include the territories of its federal subjects, inland waters and territorial sea, and the air space over them.

Article XXXV
The state flag, coat of arms and anthem of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, their description and rules for official use thereof shall be established by the federal constitutional law.

Article XXXVI
The jurisdiction of the Federal Republic of Lostisland includes:
adoption and amending of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and federal laws, control over their observance;
federal structure and the territory of the Federal Republic of Lostisland;
regulation and protection of the rights and freedoms of man and citizen and citizenship;
establishment of the system of federal legislative, executive and judicial bodies, the rules for their organisation and activities, formation of federal bodies of state authority;
establishment of the principles of federal policy and federal programmes in the sphere of state, economic, ecological, social, cultural and national development of the Federal Republic of Lostisland;
establishment of the legal basis for a single market; financial, currency, credit, and customs regulation, money issue, the principles of pricing policy; federal economic services, including federal banks;
foreign policy and international relations of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, international treaties and agreements of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, issues of war and peace;
defence and security;
state awards of the Federal Republic of Lostisland.

Article XXXVII
The joint jurisdiction of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and the Federal subjects includes:
providing for the correspondence of the constitutions and laws of the federal subjects to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and federal laws;
protection of the rights and freedoms of man and citizen; protection of the rights of national minorities; ensuring the rule of law, law and order, public security and the border zone regime;
personnel of the judicial and law enforcement agencies;
establishment of common principles of organisation of the system of bodies of state authority and local self-government.

Article XXXVIII
Outside the limits of authority of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and the powers of the Federal Republic of Lostisland on issues under joint jurisdiction of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and the subjects of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, the federal subjects of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall possess full state authority.

Article XXXIX
The monetary unit in the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall be the real. Money issue shall be carried out exclusively by the Central Bank of the Federal Republic of Lostisland. Introduction and issue of other currencies in Lostisland shall not be allowed.

Article XL
On the issues under the jurisdiction of the Federal Republic of Lostisland federal constitutional laws and federal laws shall be adopted and have direct action in the whole territory of the Federal Republic of Lostisland.
On the issues under the joint jurisdiction of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and federal subjects of the Federal Republic of Lostisland federal laws shall be issued and laws and other normative acts of the subjects of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall be adopted according to them.
Federal laws may not contradict the federal constitutional laws.

Article XLI
The federal bodies of executive power in order to exercise their powers may create their own territorial bodies and appoint corresponding officials.
The federal bodies of executive power by agreement with the bodies of executive power of the subjects of the Federal Republic of Lostisland may transfer to them the fulfillment of a part of their powers, if this does not contradict the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and federal laws.
The Federal President, the Federal Prime Minister and the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall ensure, according to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, the implementation of the powers of federal state authority in the whole territory of the Federal Republic of Lostisland.
Chapter IV The Federal President

Article XLII
The Federal President shall be the head of the State.
The Federal President shall be guarantor of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, of the rights and freedoms of man and women. According to the rules established by the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, he shall adopt measures to protect the sovereignty of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, its independence and state integrity, ensure coordinated functioning and interaction of all the bodies of state power.
According to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and federal laws the Federal President shall determine the guidelines of the internal and foreign policies of the State.
As the head of the State the Federal President represents the Federal Republic of Lostisland inside it and in international relations.

Article XLIII
The Federal President shall be elected for a term of four years by citizens of the Federal Republic of Lostisland on the basis of universal equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.
Any citizen of the Federal Republic of Lostisland not younger than 18 years of age may be elected Federal President.
One and the same person may not be elected Federal President for more than two terms running.
The rules for electing the Federal President shall be determined by the federal law.

Article XLIV
When taking office the Federal President shall take the following oath of loyalty to the people: “Having been elected by the will of God and people, to the high office ofPresident of the glorious Lostislandic Republic, I solemnly swear that I will be faithful and true to the Republic, that I will at all times preserve, protect and defend her Constitution, laws and customs, stand for the ideals of freedom and democracy. I further swear in the name of God, the Almighty Father and the Great Architect of the Universe, to do my best for the well-being of the Lostislandic nation, and devote myself to the Sacred Mount of Hunter. May the blessing of the Great Architect and the Sacred Mount be with me during my term as President, AD MAIOREM LOSTISLANDI GLORIAM, IN NOMINE LIBERTATIS”.
The oath shall be taken in a solemn atmosphere in the presence of the Federal Prime Minister, the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and the judges of the Supreme court of Lostisland.

Article XLV
The Federal President shall:
appoint the Federal Prime Minister after his election on the basis of universal equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot;
adopt decision on the resignation of the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland;
appoint and dismiss members of the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland upon nomination by the Federal Prime Minister;
appoint and dismiss judges of the Supreme Court and the Prosecutor-General upon nomination by the Federal Prime Minister;
appoint and dismiss the Chairman of the Central Bank of Lostisland upon nomination by the Federal Prime Minister;
form and head the Security Council of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, the status of which is determined by federal law;
form the Administration of the Federal President;approve the military doctrine of the Federal Republic of Lostisland;
appoint and dismiss plenipotentiary representatives of the Federal President;
appoint and dismiss the supreme command of the Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Lostisland;
after consultations with corresponding committees appoint and recall diplomatic representatives of the Federal Republic of Lostisland in foreign States and international organisations.

Article XLVI
The Federal President shall:
Announce the election of the Federal Prime Minister according to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and the federal law;
sign and make public federal laws jointly with the Federal Prime Minister;

Article XLVII
The Federal President shall have the right to suspend acts of the bodies of executive power of the subjects of the Federal Republic of Lostisland if these acts contradict the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and the federal laws or international commitments of the Federal Republic of Lostisland or violate the rights and freedoms of man and citizen until the issue is solved by a corresponding court.

Article XLVIII
The Federal President shall:
govern the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Lostisland;
hold negotiations and sign international treaties and agreements of the Federal Republic of Lostisland;
receive credentials and letters of recall of diplomatic representatives accredited to him;

Article XLVIX
The Federal President shall be the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Lostisland.

Article L
The President of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall:
solve the issues of citizenship of the Federal Republic of Lostisland;
decorate with state awards of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, higher military and higher special ranks;
decide on pardoning;

Article LI
The Federal President shall issue decrees and orders.
Decrees and orders of the Federal President shall not run counter to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and federal laws.

Article LII
The Federal President shall possess immunity.

Article LIII
The Federal President shall take up his powers from the moment of taking the oath of loyalty and cease to fulfil them with the expiration of the term of office and from the moment a newly-elected president is sworn in.
The Federal President shall cease to exercise his powers short of the term in the case of his resignation, consistent inability because of health reasons to exercise the powers vested in him or in case of impeachment. In this case the election of the Federal President shall take place not later than three months from the termination of the powers short of the term.
In all cases when the Federal President is incapable of fulfilling his duties, they shall be temporarily fulfilled by the Federal Prime Minister. The Acting Federal President shall have no right to call a election for the office of Federal President, call a referendum, or to submit proposals on amendments to, and review of, the provisions of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland.

Article LIV
The Federal President may be impeached by the Supreme Court of Lostisland only on the basis of charges of high treason or another grave crime, advanced by the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and confirmed by the conclusion of the Supreme Court of Lostisland on the presence of the elements of a crime in the actions of the Federal President.
The decision of the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland on advancing charges shall be adopted by two thirds of the votes of the total number of members on the initiative of not less than one third of the members.
Chapter V The Federal Prime Minister and the Government

Article LV
The Federal Prime Minister shall be the head of the Government.
The Federal Prime Minister shall be responsible for implementing the policy of government as decided by the Federal President.

Article LVI
The Federal Prime Minister shall be elected for a term of four years by citizens of the Federal Republic of Lostisland on the basis of universal equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot.
Any citizen of the Federal Republic of Lostisland not younger than 18 years of age may be elected Federal Prime Minister.
The rules for electing the Federal Prime Minister shall determined by the federal law.

Article LVII
The jurisdiction of the Federal Prime Minister includes:
hearing of annual reports of the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland on the results of its activity;
nominate members of the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland to the Federal President;
nominate candidates for the office of judges of the Supreme Court and the Prosecutor-General to the Federal President;
nominate candidates for the office of the Chairman of the Central Bank of Lostisland to the Federal President;
co-sign decrees, orders and federal laws jointly with the Federal President;

Article LVIII
Executive power in Lostisland shall be exercised by the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland.
The Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland consists of the Federal Prime Minister, Deputy Federal Prime Minister and federal ministers.

Article LVIX
According to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, federal laws and decrees of the Federal President the Federal Prime Minister shall determine the guidelines for the activities of the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and organise its work.

Article LX
The Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall:
ensure the implementation in the Federal Republic of Lostisland of a single financial, credit and monetary policy;
carry out measures to secure the defence of the country, state security, and the implementation of the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Lostisland;
implement measures to ensure the rule of law, human rights and freedoms, protection of property and public order, and control of crime;
exercise other powers vested in it by the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, the federal laws and decrees of the Federal President.

Article LXI
On the basis and for the sake of implementation of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, federal laws, normative decrees of the Federal President, the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall issue decisions and orders and ensure their implementation.
The decisions and orders of the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall be obligatory for fulfillment in the Federal Republic of Lostisland.
The decisions and orders of the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, if they are inconsistent with the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, federal laws and decrees of the Federal President, may be cancelled by the Federal President.

Article LXII
The Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall resign in the event of a newly-elected Federal President.

Article LXIII
The Federal Prime Minister may raise before the Federal President the issue of no-confidence in the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland. The Federal President shall adopt within seven days a decision on the resignation of the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland.

Article LXIV
In the case of a resignation of the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland it shall continue to work on the instruction of the Federal President until a new Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland is formed.
Chapter VI Judicial Power

Article LXV
Justice in the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall be administered by courts alone.
Judicial power shall be exercised by means of constitutional, civil, administrative and criminal proceedings.
The judicial system of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall be instituted by the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and the federal constitutional law. The creation of extraordinary courts shall not be allowed.

Article LXVI
Judges are to be citizens of the Federal Republic of Lostisland over 18 years of age. Federal law may introduce additional requirements for judges of the courts of the Federal Republic of Lostisland.

Article LXVII
Judges shall be independent and submit only to the Constitution and federal law.
If after considering a case the court of law decides that an act of a state or other body contradicts the law it shall pass an appropriate decision according to the law.

Article LXVIII
Trial in absentia in criminal courts shall not be allowed except in cases fixed by the federal law.
Judicial proceedings shall be held on the basis of confrontation and equality of the parties.
In cases fixed by the federal law justice shall be administered by a jury court.

Article LXVIX
The Supreme Court of Lostisland shall consist of a maximum of 5 judges.
The Supreme Court of Lostisland upon requests of the Federal President, the Federal Prime Minister or the Government of Lostisland shall consider cases on the correspondence to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland of:
treaties concluded between the bodies of state authority of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and the bodies of state authority of the subjects of the Federal Republic of Lostisland;
federal laws, normative acts of the Federal President, the Federal Prime Minister, the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland;
nd, treaties concluded between the bodies of state authority of the subjects of the Federal Republic of Lostisland;
international treaties and agreements of the Federal Republic of Lostisland which have not come into force.
The Supreme Court of Lostisland shall resolve disputes on jurisdiction:
between the federal bodies of state authority;
between the bodies of state authority of the Federal Republic of Lostisland and the bodies of state authority of the federal subjects of the Federal Republic of Lostisland;
between the higher bodies of state authority of the federal subjects of the Federal Republic of Lostisland
The Supreme Court of Lostisland upon complaints about violations of constitutional rights and freedoms of citizens and upon court requests shall check, according to the rules fixed by federal law, the constitutionality of a law applied or subject to be applied in a concrete case.
The Supreme Court of Lostisland upon the requests of the Federal President, the Federal Prime Minister, the Government of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, the bodies of the legislative power of the subjects of the Federal Republic of Lostisland, shall give its interpretation of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland.
Acts or their provisions recognised as unconstitutional shall become invalid; international treaties and agreements not corresponding to the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall not be liable to enforcement and application.


Article LXX


The Supreme Court of Lostisland shall be the supreme judicial body for civil, criminal, administrative and other cases under the jurisdiction of regular courts, shall carry out judicial supervision over their activities according to procedural forms envisaged in federal law and provide explanations on issues of court proceedings.

Article LXXI
The Supreme Court of Lostisland shall be headed by the Praesus of the Supreme Court of Lostisland.
The Praesus of the Supreme Court of Lostisland shall be elected by the members of the Supreme Court of Lostisland from amongst its members.

Article LXXII
Judges of other federal courts shall be appointed by the Federal President according to the rules fixed by federal law.

Article LXXIII
The Prosecutor-General’s office shall form a single centralised structure in which procurators are subordinate to superior prosecutors and the Prosecutor-General of the Federal Republic of Lostisland.
The Prosecutors of the federal subjects of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall be appointed by the Prosecutor-General of the Federal Republic of Lostisland by agreement with the federal subjects.
The powers, organisation and the rules of the functioning of the Prosecutor-General’s Office of the Federal Republic of Lostisland shall be determined by federal law.
Chapter VII Constitutional Amendments

Article LXXIV
The Articles XLIII, XLIV and LIV shall come into force after the Death or Resignation of Yaroslav Mar who by Presidential Decree was named the President for Life.

What is Let's Split?

First of all, I should tell you that ''Let's Split'' is a book
It is a 636-page atlas of separatism, national identity, fringe geopolitical movements, and a baleful cry from oppressed minority populations.
The book is put together with the obsessive care of an eccentric Victorian explorer documenting each step of his journey through uncharted lands, never stopping to discern between the observed real and the observed surreal. But Roth is no Victorian, he’s an anthropologist who’s worked with indigenous peoples in Canada and Alaska for governmental recognition and rights. Let’s Split! began life in 2011 as a blog that Roth maintains titled Springtime of Nations.
The idea of a nation-state is relatively new in the spectrum of development of human societies. But everyone can interpret this term as a different way. A lot of people have been identifyed by a nation-state during centuries. But dure to the globalization effect, most people feel as a part of the World State. Perhaps ''Let's Split'' book is a tool for everyone for understanding that we live in a diverse world, where nations are simply entities that work together for developing a future for society. MicroNations and independentist movements are tools for developing this diverse world.
Chris Roth is the writer of the book ''Let's Split''.

Chris Roth is a social-cultural and linguistic anthropologist with an interest in the symbolic politics of nationalism and ethnicity. He has worked extensively with indigenous groups in northern British Columbia and southeast Alaska and is the author of an ethnography of the Tsimshian Nation. He is the author of the blog ''Springtime of Nations'', which is a blog about nations without states.

European Free Alliance (EFA)

The European Free Alliance (EFA) is a European political coalition that consists of various regionalist political parties in Europe. Members parties advocate either for full political independence and sovereignty, or some form of devolution or self-governance for their country or region. The alliance has generally limited its membership to progressive parties, therefore, only a fraction of European regionalist parties are members of the EFA.
Since 1999 the EFA and the European Green Party (EGP) have joined forces within Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA) group in the European Parliament, albeit some EFA members have joined other groups from time to time.
The EFA's youth wing is the European Free Alliance Youth (EFAY), founded in 2000.

Organisation

The main organs of the EFA organisation are the General Assembly, the Bureau and the Secretariat.

General Assembly

In the General Assembly, the supreme council of the EFA, every member party has one vote.

Bureau and Secretariat

The Bureau takes care of daily affairs. It is chaired by François Alfonsi (Party of the Corsican Nation), president of the EFA, while Jordi Solé (Republican Left of Catalonia) is secretary-general and Lorena Lopez de Lacalle (Basque Solidarity) treasurer and first vice-president. The Bureau is completed by other nine vice-presidents: Olrik Bouma (Frisian National Party), Chantal Certan (ALPE), Jill Evans (Plaid Cymru), Anders Eriksson (sv) (Future of Åland), David Grosclaude (Partit Occitan), Flemming Meyer (SSW Landesverband), Ana Miranda (Galician Nationalist Bloc), Wouter Patho (New Flemish Alliance) and Natalia Pinkowska (Silesian Autonomy Movement).

Member parties

This is a list of EFA member parties.

Full members

Before becoming a member party, an organization needs to have been an observer of the EFA for at least one year. Only one member party per region is allowed. If a second party from a region wants to join the EFA, the first party needs to agree, at which point these two parties will then form a common delegation with one vote. The EFA also recognises friends of the EFA, a special status for regionalist parties outside of the European Union.
Current state(s)PartySeeking to representJoined
(Observer/Member)
MEPs
 AustriaUnity ListSlovenia ethnic Slovenes2005/20060
 BelgiumNew Flemish Alliance Flanders20104
 BulgariaUnited Macedonian Organization Ilinden–PirinRepublic of Macedonia ethnic Macedonians2006/20070
 Czech RepublicMoravané Moravia20060
 CroatiaList for Rijeka Rijeka2009/20100
 DenmarkSchleswig PartyGermany ethnic Germans in North Schleswig20110
 FinlandFuture of Åland Åland2005/20060
 FranceSavoy Region MovementSavoy Savoie19910
 FranceOccitan Party Occitania19820
 FranceParty of the Corsican Nation Corsica19810
 FranceBreton Democratic Union Brittany19870
 FranceOur Land Alsace19910
 FranceCatalan UnityCatalonia Northern Catalonia, Catalan Countries19910
 GermanyBavaria Party Bavaria2007/20080
 GermanyThe Friesen East Frisia2008/20090
 GermanyLusatian Alliance Sorbs, Lusatia2009/20130
 GermanySouth Schleswig Voters' AssociationDenmark ethnic Danes,  North Frisia2009/20100
 GreeceRainbowRepublic of Macedonia ethnic Macedonians1999/20000
 ItalySouth Tyrolean Freedom South Tyrol20090
 ItalyLiga Veneta Repubblica Veneto1999/20000
 ItalySardinian Action Party Sardinia19840
 ItalySlovene UnionSlovenia ethnic Slovenes19910
 ItalyAutonomy Liberty Participation Ecology Aosta Valley2007/20110
 NetherlandsFrisian National Party Friesland19810
 PolandSilesian Autonomy Movement Upper Silesia2002/20030
 RomaniaHungarian People's Party of TransylvaniaHungary ethnic Hungarians2015/20160
 SlovakiaHungarian Christian Democratic AssociationHungary ethnic Hungarians2008/20090
 Spain /  FranceAralar Party Basque Country2012/20130
 Spain /  FranceBasque Solidarity Basque Country19861
 Spain /  FranceRepublican Left of CataloniaCatalonia Catalonia, Catalan Countries19892
 SpainAragonese Union Aragon2003/20040
 SpainSocialist Party of Majorca Balearic Islands, Catalan Countries2000/20080
 SpainGalician Nationalist Bloc Galicia1994/20000
 SpainValencian Nationalist BlocValencian Community Valencia, Catalan Countries2012/20131
 United KingdomMebyon Kernow Cornwall20030
 United KingdomPlaid Cymru Wales19831
 United KingdomScottish National Party Scotland19892
 United KingdomYorkshire Party Yorkshire2015/20160

Observer members

Current state(s)PartySeeking to representJoined
(as observer)
MEPs
 ItalyThe Other South Sicily20140
 ItalyPro Lombardy IndependenceBandiera Lombardia Lombardy20150
 LatviaLatvian Russian UnionRussia ethnic Russians Latgalians20101
 PolandKashubian Unity Kashubia20160
 SpainNew Canaries Canary Islands20130
 GreeceParty of Friendship, Equality and PeaceTurkey ethnic Turks in Thrace Periphery Emblem.png Western Thrace20150

Associate members

Current state(s)PartySeeking to representJoined
(as associate)
MEPs
 AzerbaijanDemocratic Party of Artsakh Nagorno-Karabakh20150
 SerbiaLeague of Social Democrats of Vojvodina Vojvodina20160

Former members

Current state(s)PartySeeking to representJoined
(Observer/Member)
Notes
 BelgiumPeople's Union Flanders1981Split into the New Flemish Alliance and SPIRIT
 BelgiumSocial Liberal Party Flanders2001Ceased activity in 2009
 BelgiumWalloon Popular Rally Wallonia1982Ceased activity as party in 2011
 BelgiumParty of German-speaking Belgians German Community1981Merged into ProDG in 2008
 BelgiumPro German-speaking Community German Community2009/2011
 FranceAlsace-Lorraine National Association Alsace Lorraine1981
 FranceUnion of the Corsican People Corsica1981Merged into the PNC in 2002
 FranceParty for the Organization of a Free Brittany Brittany1981Ceased activity in 2000
 FranceSavoyan LeagueSavoy Savoie1999/2000Ceased activity in 2012
 HungaryRenewed Roma Union Party of Hungary Romani people2009Ceased activity in 2012
 IrelandIndependent Fianna Fáil Ireland1981Ceased activity in 2006
 ItalyLega Lombarda Lombardy1989/1990Joined Lega Nord in 1991
 ItalyLiga Veneta Veneto1989/1990Joined Lega Nord in 1991
 ItalyLega Nord Padania1991Suspended in 1994, left in 1996 and joined ELDR
 ItalyEmilian Free Alliance Emilia1999/2000Ceased activity in 2010
 ItalyMovement for the Independence of Sicily Sicily2009
 ItalyValdostan Union Aosta ValleyExpelled in 2007 after lack of activity in EFA structures
 LithuaniaLithuanian Polish People's PartyPoland ethnic Poles2003/2004Ceased activity in 2010
 ItalyUnion for South Tyrol South TyrolExpelled in 2008 for opposition to the Bilbao declaration
 RomaniaTransilvania–Banat League TransylvaniaBanatCeased activity
 SlovakiaHungarian Federalist PartyHungary ethnic HungariansBanned in 2005
 SpainDemocratic Convergence of Catalonia Catalonia1981Joined the LDR Group in 1987
 SpainCanarian Coalition Canary Islands1994Left in 1999 and joined the ELDR Group
 Spain /  FranceBasque Nationalist Party Basque Country1999Left in 2004 and joined the EDP
 SpainAndalusian Party Andalusia1999dissolved in 2015