Libertarianism

When we talk about micronations and alternative policies which are separated from the status-quo, we should understand how this ideas are emerging so fast. So why micronationalism have been so attractive for most of the people of the world. But who rules the destiny of this micronations?
Micronations were always born with the idea of freedom and this idea is shaped by the idea of self-determination or self-ownership or with the idea of liberty applied in the most strict sense.
This strict idea of liberty is called libertarianism. All micronationalist share in common the idea of not being dependent of an state. That is to say, libertarianism and micronationalism share in common several points.. The freedom of self-determination, the right of every person, company or foundation to rule its property without the intervention of the state or government. Micronationalists and libertarians share in common the right to ''NOT PAY TAXES''. A lot of micronations have been born because their founders didn't want to pay taxes to its government. This kind of micronations were founded as a protest.

Why micronationalism and libertarianism are growing?

The high taxes, the amazing government intervention on each action you want to take together with the corresponding fees, have made this movements strong.
But why in the most developed countries?
Developed countries usually have democracy as its form of government and democracy sis so expensive for the state. This is the reason why in this countires taxes are so high. But there is another problem, regulations are also very strict because of massive laws which sometimes they contradict each other.
Some bussinesman and a lot of property owners are spending a lot of money on lawyers because of the complicated and abussive regulations from the state

MINIMALIST GOVERNMENT















El Cato Institute
It is an institution

Jesús Huerta de Soto Ballester is a Spanish economist of the Austrian School. He is a professor in the Department of Applied Economics at King Juan Carlos University of Madrid, Spain and a Senior Fellow at the Ludwig von Mises Institute.

He is inffuenced by Ludwig von MisesFriedrich HayekMurray RothbardCarl MengerEugen Böhm von BawerkIsrael Kirzner.

LIBERTARIAN PARTY IN U.S.A

The Libertarian Party (LP) is a political party in the United States that promotes civil liberties, non-interventionism, laissez-faire, capitalism, and the abolition of the welfare state. The LP was conceived at meetings in the home of David F. Nolan in Westminster, Colorado in 1971 and was officially formed on December 11, 1971, in Colorado Springs, Colorado. The founding of the party was prompted in part due to concerns about the Nixon administration, the Vietnam War, conscription, and the end of the gold standard. It is the third largest political party in the United States, it currently has no members in Congress or governorships. There are 511,277 voters registered as Libertarian in the 27 states that report Libertarian registration statistics and Washington, D.C.
David Nolan is the founder of the Libertarian Party. David Nolan is also the founder of the Nolan Chart, which is a political spectrum.

THE NOLAN CHART

Check how libertarian are you with the Nolan Chart
The claim that political positions can be located on a chart with two axes: left-right (economics) and tough-tender (authoritarian-libertarian) was put forward by the British psychologist Hans Eysenck in his 1954 book The Psychology of Politics with statistical evidence based on survey data. This leads to a loose classification of political positions into four quadrants, with further detail based on exact position within the quadrant.


Libertarianism in Spain
Great article of Carlos Taibo, CSOA 
Por una organización libertaria y global


GOVERNMENT DESCENTRALIZATION

John Donahue argues that if political power were radically shifted to local authorities, parochial local interests would predominate at the expense of the whole, and that this would exacerbate current problems with collective action.

Name
Country
Ideology
Membership
Liberal Libertarian Party
Argentina
classical liberalismlibertarianismindividual rightfree marketnon-aggression principle
·         Interlibertarians
Liberal Democratic Party
Australia
classic liberalismright-libertarianism
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
·         Interlibertarians
Parti Libertarien
Belgium
classical liberalism, libertarianism, minarchism
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
(founding member)
·         Interlibertarians
Libertair, Direct, Democratisch
BelgiumFlanders
conservative liberalismlibertarianismright-wing populismEuroscepticism
·         Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists
·         European Conservatives and Reformists
Libertários
Brazil
liberalismlibertarianismminarchismanarcho-capitalism
·         Interlibertarians
Partido Novo
Brazil
libertarianismclassical liberalism
British Columbia Libertarian Party
CanadaBritish Columbia
Libertarian Party of Canada
Canada
libertarianismclassical liberalismvoluntaryismnon-interventionismfiscal conservatismlaissez-faire,
civil libertarianism
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
·         Member of Interlibertarians
Ontario Libertarian Party
CanadaOntario
·         Interlibertarians
Atlantica Party
CanadaNova Scotia
Populism, Libertarianism, Fiscal Conservatism
Libertario
Colombia
minarchism
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
Liberal Democrats
Cyprus
·         Interlibertarians
Party of Free Citizens
Czech Republic
classical liberalism, right-libertarianism, libertarian conservatism, Euroscepticism
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
·         Interlibertarians
Libertarian Party
Denmark
·         Interlibertarians
Liberal Alliance
Denmark
Classical liberalism, liberalism, libertarianism
European Party for Individual Liberty
Europe
·         Interlibertarians
Liberal Alternative
France
classical liberalism
Parti Libertarien
France
classical liberalism
minarchism
Liberal Democratic Party
France
classical liberalism
·         European Party for Individual Liberty
Mouvement des Libertariens
France
minarchism
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
(founding member)
Party of Reason
Germany
libertarianism
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
(founding member)
·         Interlibertarians
·         European Party for Individual Liberty
Liberal Alliance
Greece
classical liberalism
Libertarian Society of Iceland
Iceland
Swarna Bharat Party
India
classical liberalism
Italian Radicals
Italy
liberalism, libertarianism, anti-clericalism
·         Liberal International
·         Alliance of Liberals
·         Democrats for Europe Party
Libertarian Movement
Italy
agorism,
anarcho-capitalism, anti-federalism, anti-statism, classical liberalism, Euroscepticism,
free market, individualism, laissez-faire, liberism, libertarianism, minarchism, non-interventionism, non-violence, non-voting, objectivism, voluntaryism
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
·         Interlibertarians
Go Tax Evaders!
Italy
·         Interlibertarians
Libertarische Partij
Netherlands
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
·         Interlibertarians
·         European Party for Individual Liberty
Capitalist Party
Norway
classical liberalism, Laissez-faire
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
Congress of the New Right
Poland
libertarian conservatism, Euroscepticism
Liberty
Poland
libertarianism, conservative liberalism, Euroscepticism
Libertarian Party
Poland
minarchism, anarcho-capitalism
Libertarian Party of Russia
Russia
libertarianism, minarchism, anarcho-capitalism, libertarian conservatism
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
(founding member)
·         Interlibertarians
Scottish Libertarians
Scotland
libertarianism, Scottish independence, Euroscepticism
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
Libertarian Party of South Africa
South Africa
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
(founding member)
·         Interlibertarians
Libertarian Party[1]
South Korea
Libertarianism, cosmopolitanism, individualism, anarcho-capitalism, Rothbardian, Misesian,
Austrian School, classical liberalism, laissez-faire
Partido Libertario
Formerly Partido de la Libertad Individual
Spain
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
·         Interlibertarians
·         European Party for Individual Liberty
Liberala partiet
Sweden
classical liberalism, libertarianism
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
Libertarian Party of Geneva
SwitzerlandGeneva
The Swiss Independence Party up!
 Switzerland
libertarianism
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
I Liberisti Ticinesi
SwitzerlandTicino
·         Interlibertarians
Libertarian Movement
Ukraine
·         Interlibertarians
Libertarian Party UK
United Kingdom
Right-libertarianism, minarchism, classical liberalism, Euroscepticism
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
(founding member)
·         Interlibertarians
Libertarian Party
See also: List of state Libertarian Parties in the United States
United States
laissez faire, libertarianism, classical liberalism, non-interventionism, civil liberties
·         International Alliance of Libertarian Parties
(founding member)
·         Interlibertarians
Libertarian Liberal Party
Uruguay
·         Interlibertarians




Samuel Edward Konkin III (8 July 1947 – 23 February 2004), also known as SEK3, was the author of the publication New Libertarian Manifesto and a proponent of a political philosophy which he named agorism.

Agorism
Agorism is an anarcho-capitalist political philosophy founded by Samuel Edward Konkin III that believes the ultimate goal as bringing about a society in which all "relations between people are voluntary exchanges– a free market." The term comes from the Greek word "agora," referring to an open place for assembly and market in ancient Greek city-states. Agorist theory divides people into two classes: people who make their living through the market, and people who make their living by coercing others (called the "economic class" and "political class", respectively). They support a nonviolent overthrow of the second class by the first, through peaceful black market and gray market activity, known as counter-economics.
Counter-economics is a term originally used by Samuel Edward Konkin III and J. Neil Schulman, libertarian activists and theorists. Konkin defined it as "the study or practice of all peaceful human action which is forbidden by the State." The term is short for "counter-establishment economics" and may also be referred to as counter-politics. Counter-economics was integrated by Schulman into Konkin's doctrine of agorism.
New Libertarian Manifesto is a libertarian philosophical treatise by Samuel Edward Konkin III. It is the first explanation of agorism, a philosophy created by Konkin. Konkin proffers various arguments of how a free society would function as well as examples of existing gray and black markets. It contains criticisms of using political (i.e. activist or legislative) or violent means and advocates non-politics with non-voting as a strategy. Finally, Konkin describes the steps of using the black market to dismantle the state, a strategy known as counter-economics.

Cliff Asness
Clifford Scott Asness (born October 17, 1966) is an American billionaire hedge fund manager, the co-founder of AQR Capital Management.

B
Peter Thomas Bauer

Peter Thomas Bauer, Baron Bauer, FBA (6 November 1915 – 2 May 2002) was a Hungarian-born British development economist. Bauer is best remembered for his opposition to the widely-held notion that the most effective manner to help developing countries advance is through state-controlled foreign aid. 

Gary Becker
Gary Stanley Becker (December 2, 1930 – May 3, 2014) was an American economist. He was a professor of economics and sociology at the University of Chicago. Described as “the most important social scientist in the past 50 years” by The New York Times, Becker was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1992 and received the United States Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2007.
Becker's research was fundamental in arguing for the augmentability of human capital. When his research was first introduced it was considered very controversial as some considered it debasing. However, he was able to convince many that individuals make choices of investing in human capital based on rational benefits and cost that include a return on investment as well as a cultural aspect.
His research included the impact of positive and negative habits such as punctuality and alcoholism on human capital. He explored the different rates of return for different people and the resulting macroeconomic implications. He also distinguished between general to specific education and their influence on job-lock and promotions. 

Kakha Bendukidze
Kakha Bendukidze was a Georgian statesman, businessman and philanthropist, founder of the Knowledge Foundation and head of the supervisory board of Agricultural and Free Universities.

Bruce L. Benson
He is an American academic economist who is recognized as an authority on law and economics and a major exponent of anarcho-capitalist legal theory. He is the recipient of the 2006 Adam Smith Award, the highest honor bestowed by the Association of Private Enterprise Education.

Walter Block
Walter Edward Block (born August 21, 1941) is an American Austrian School economist and anarcho-capitalist theorist.
Donald J. Boudreaux
Donald Joseph Boudreaux (born 1958) is an American libertarian economist, author, professor, and co-director of the Program on the American Economy and Globalization at the Mercatus Center at George Mason University.
Sam Bowman

Sam Bowman is a neoliberal political theorist, economist and Executive Director of the Adam Smith Institute.

Sam Bowman holds a BA in History and Economics at University College Cork and a MA from the School of Oriental and African Studies. He joined the Adam Smith Institute in 2010 working as Research Manager and Policy Director before being promoted to Deputy Director in 2014 and Executive Director in 2015. 

James M. Buchanan
James McGill Buchanan (Murfreesboro, Tennessee, October 3, 1919 - Blacksburg, Virginia, January 9, 2013) 1 was an American economist considered the highest representative of the public choice theory, the economy with politics through the State, understood as the sum of individual wills.

C
Bryan Caplan

Bryan Caplan (born 1971) is an associate professor of economics at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. Received his B.S. in economics from the University of California, Berkeley and his Ph.D. from Princeton University. 

John H. Cochrane
John Howland Cochrane (born 26 November 1957) is an economist, specializing in financial economics and macroeconomics. He is a Senior Fellow of the Hoover Institution at Stanford University.
Tyler Cowen
Tyler Cowen, es un economista estadounidense y tiene la cátedra Holbert C. Harris de economía en la Universidad George Mason como profesor, y es dueño, junto con Alex Tabarrok, del popular blog Marginal Revolution.
Actualmente, Cowen es el autor de la columna "Economic Sense" en el New York Times y también escribe en algunas revistas como The New Republic y The Wilson Quarterly. Cowen también es director general del Mercatus Center, en la Universidad George Mason. 

Christopher Coyne (professor)


Christopher J. Coyne (born 1977) is the F.A. Harper Professor of Economics at George Mason University and the Associate Director of the F. A. Hayek Program for Advanced Study in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics at the Mercatus Center. He also serves as the Director of Graduate Studies for the Department of Economics at GMU.

Victoria Curzon-Price

Victoria Curzon-Price (born 1942) was Professor of Economics at the University of Geneva and also at the European Institute (also of the University of Geneva). Her areas of interest include international trade, economic integration, institutional competition and political economy. Previously she was president of the Mont Pèlerin Society, from 2004-2006. She currently sits on the Board of Trustees of the Liberales Institut. Her husband was

Gerard Curzon, an economist also.
Her son is Tony Curzon Price, he was Editor-in-Chief of openDemocracy.net and online editor at Intelligence Squared.

D
Antony Davies


Antony Davies (born 4 April 1965) is an American economist, speaker, and author. He co-founded Paragon Software with Mark E. Seremet. He served as Chief Financial Officer and Chief Analytics Officer at Parabon Computation. In 2006, he co-founded an Internet discovery firm, Repliqa, that was purchased by indiePub Entertainment. 

Thomas DiLorenzo

Thomas James DiLorenzo (born August 8, 1954) is an American economics professor at Loyola University Maryland Sellinger School of Business. He is a research fellow at The Independent Institute, a senior fellow of the Ludwig von Mises Institute, Board of Advisors member at CFACT,and an associate of the Abbeville Institute. He holds a Ph.D. in Economics from Virginia Tech. DiLorenzo has taught at the State University of New York at Buffalo, George Mason University. and the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga. He is a former adjunct fellow of the Center for the Study of American Business at Washington University in St. Louis Since 1992, he has been a professor of economics at Loyola University Maryland Sellinger School of Business. He also is a frecuent speaker at von Mises Institute

F
David D. Friedman 

David Director Friedman (born February 12, 1945) is an American economist, physicist, legal scholar, and libertarian theorist. He is known for his textbook writings on microeconomics and the libertarian theory of anarcho-capitalism, which is the subject of his most popular book, The Machinery of Freedom. Besides The Machinery of Freedom, he has authored several other books and articles, including Price Theory: An Intermediate Text (1986), Law's Order: What Economics Has to Do with Law and Why It Matters (2000), Hidden Order: The Economics of Everyday Life (1996), and Future Imperfect (2008).
David Friedman is the son of economists Rose and Milton Friedman. He graduated magna cum laude from Harvard University in 1965, with a bachelor's degree in chemistry and physics. He later earned a master's (1967) and a Ph.D. (1971) in theoretical physics from the University of Chicago. Despite his later career, he never took a class for credit in either economics or law. He is currently a professor of law at Santa Clara University, and a contributing editor for Liberty magazine. He is an atheist. His son, Patri Friedman, has also written about libertarian theory and market anarchism, particularly seasteading.
The Machinery of Freedom
In his book The Machinery of Freedom (1973), Friedman sketched a form of anarcho-capitalism where all goods and services including law itself can be produced by the free market. This differs from the version proposed by Murray Rothbard, where a legal code would first be consented to by the parties involved in setting up the anarcho-capitalist society. Friedman advocates an incrementalist approach to achieve anarcho-capitalism by gradual privatization of areas that government is involved in, ultimately privatizing law and order itself. In the book, he states his opposition to violent anarcho-capitalist revolution.
He advocates a consequentialist version of anarcho-capitalism, arguing for anarchism on a cost-benefit analysis of state versus no state. It is contrasted with the natural-rights approach as propounded most notably by economist and libertarian theorist Murray Rothbard.
Non-academic interests
Friedman is a longtime member of the Society for Creative Anachronism, where he is known as Duke Cariadoc of the Bow. He is known throughout the worldwide society for his articles on the philosophy of recreationism and practical historical recreations, especially those relating to the medieval Middle East. His work is compiled in the popular Cariadoc's Miscellany. He is sometimes credited with founding the largest and longest-running SCA event, the Pennsic War; as king of the Middle Kingdom he challenged the East Kingdom, and later as king of the East accepted the challenge...and lost.
He is a long-time science fiction fan, and has written two fantasy novels, Harald (Baen Books, 2006) and Salamander (2011).
He has spoken in favor of a non-interventionist foreign policy.
Bibliography[edit]
Nonfiction[edit]
1988. Cariadoc's Miscellany.
1989 (1973). The Machinery of Freedom.
1990 (1986). Price Theory: An Intermediate Text. Southwestern Publishing.
1996. Hidden Order: The Economics of Everyday Life.
2000. Law’s Order: What Economics Has to Do with Law and Why It Matters. Princeton Univ. Press.
2005. "The Case for Privacy" in Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
2008. Future Imperfect: Technology and Freedom in an Uncertain World.

Milton Friedman 
Milton Friedman was an American economist who received the 1976 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his research on consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and the complexity of stabilization policy. With George Stigler and others, Friedman was among the intellectual leaders of the second generation of Chicago price theory, a methodological movement at the University of Chicago's Department of Economics, Law School, and Graduate School of Business from the 1940s onward. Several students and young professors that were recruited or mentored by Friedman at Chicago went on to become leading economists; they include Gary Becker, Robert Fogel, Thomas Sowell, and Robert Lucas, Jr.
Friedman's challenges to what he later called "naive Keynesian" theory began with his 1950s reinterpretation of the consumption function. In the 1960s, he became the main advocate opposing Keynesian government policies, and described his approach (along with mainstream economics) as using "Keynesian language and apparatus" yet rejecting its "initial" conclusions. He theorized that there existed a "natural" rate of unemployment, and argued that employment above this rate would cause inflation to accelerate. He argued that the Phillips curve was, in the long run, vertical at the "natural rate" and predicted what would come to be known as stagflation. Friedman promoted an alternative macroeconomic viewpoint known as "monetarism", and argued that a steady, small expansion of the money supply was the preferred policy. His ideas concerning monetary policy, taxation, privatization and deregulation influenced government policies, especially during the 1980s. His monetary theory influenced the Federal Reserve's response to the global financial crisis of 2007–08.
Friedman was an advisor to Republican U.S. President Ronald Reagan and Conservative British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. His political philosophy extolled the virtues of a free market economic system with minimal intervention. He once stated that his role in eliminating U.S. conscription was his proudest accomplishment. In his 1962 book Capitalism and Freedom, Friedman advocated policies such as a volunteer military, freely floating exchange rates, abolition of medical licenses, a negative income tax, and school vouchers. His support for school choice led him to found the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, later renamed EdChoice.
Milton Friedman's works include monographs, books, scholarly articles, papers, magazine columns, television programs, and lectures, and cover a broad range of economic topics and public policy issues. His books and essays have had global influence, including in former communist states. A survey of economists ranked Friedman as the second-most popular economist of the twentieth century after John Maynard Keynes, and The Economist described him as "the most influential economist of the second half of the 20th century ... possibly of all of it".

Rose Friedman
Rose Director Friedman (/dɪˈrɛktər ˈfriːdmən/; born Rose Director, December, 1910 – 18 August 2009), also known as Rose D. Friedman, was a free-market economist and co-founder of the Milton and Rose D. Friedman Foundation. She was married to her frequent collaborator, Milton Friedman (1912–2006), who won the 1976 Nobel Prize in Economics. Her brother, Aaron Director (1901–2004), was a professor at the University of Chicago Law School and one of the founders of the economic analysis of law.
With Milton, she co-wrote two books on economics and public policy, Free to Choose and Tyranny of the Status Quo, and their memoirs Milton and Rose D. Friedman, Two Lucky People, which appeared in 1998. Together they founded EdChoice (formerly the Milton and Rose D. Friedman Foundation), with the aim of promoting the use of school vouchers and freedom of choice in education. She also co-produced the PBS television series, Free to Choose, and assisted her husband in writing his 1962 political philosophy book Capitalism and Freedom.
When Milton received his Medal of Freedom in 1988, President Ronald Reagan said jokingly in his speech that Rose was known for being the only person to ever have won an argument against Milton. The Friedmans have two children, Janet and David.

G
Constantin Gurdgiev
He is a former editor of Business & Finance Magazine and a regular panelist on Tonight with Vincent Browne on TV3. Gurdgiev identifies as a libertarian. In September 2006, he became the editor of Business & Finance Magazine. He left the post in March 2008, and joined NCB Stockbrokers, but continued at the magazine as an editorial advisor and contributor.

H
Gottfried Haberler 
Was an Austrian-American economist. He worked in particular on international trade. One of his major contributions was reformulating the Ricardian idea of comparative advantage in a neoclassical framework, abandoning the labor theory of value for an opportunity cost concept.
He was President of the International Economic Association (1950–1953). In 1957 the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade commissioned a report on the terms of trade for primary commodities, and Haberler was appointed Chairman. In 1971, Haberler left Harvard to become a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute.

F. A. Harper 
Was an American academic, economist and writer who was best known for founding the Institute for Humane Studies in 1961. Harper founded the Institute for Humane Studies in 1961 in Menlo Park, California. The Institute, which began in Harper's garage, is a non-profit organization that offers educational and career programs. The educational programs include seminars, scholarships to undergraduate and graduate students, an archive of recorded lectures, and an interactive website based on a multi-axis model of political thought. The career assistance programs include paid internships for students and recent graduates, a networking website for classical liberal academics, and recognition of alumni accomplishments. Initially serving as the secretary and treasurer, Harper became the Institute's president in 1966, a position he held until his death in 1973. After beginning an association with George Mason University, Leonard Liggio, Walter Grinder, and John Blundell moved the institute to Fairfax, Virginia in 1985. The organization is currently located at 3434 Washington Blvd. on the George Mason University Arlington campus. 
Mentoring a network of classical liberal scholars, building institutions, encouraging scholarship, and laying out strategy and practice for the libertarian movement is where Harper's influence is visible today. Current Institute for Humane Studies chairman of the board Charles Koch said that Harper's book, Why Wages Rise, influenced his philosophical framework. In 1978 and 1979 the Institute for Humane Studies published The Writings of F. A. Harper. Koch wrote the tribute section, saying, "Of all the teachers of liberty, none was as well-beloved as Baldy, for it was he who taught the teachers and, in teaching, taught them humility and gentleness."
The Mercatus Center at George Mason University established the F.A. Harper Professorship in Economics, a position currently held by Christopher Coyne.[28] In October 2011, Coyne co-authored an article entitled War and Liberty: Wisdom From Leonard E. Read and F. A. 'Baldy' Harper. The article reviews the main themes of Harper's anti-war pamphlet In Search of Peace and argues that Harper's ideas are as important and relevant today as they were in 1950.

Friedrich Hayek 
Was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism. Hayek shared the 1974 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Gunnar Myrdal for his "pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and ... penetrating analysis of the interdependence of economic, social and institutional phenomena".
Hayek was a major social theorist and political philosopher of the twentieth century, and his account of how changing prices communicate information that helps individuals co-ordinate their plans is widely regarded as an important achievement in economics, leading to his Nobel Prize.
Even after his death, Hayek's intellectual presence is noticeable, especially in the universities where he had taught: the London School of Economics, the University of Chicago, and the University of Freiburg. A number of tributes have resulted, many posthumous:
- The Hayek Society, a student-run group at the London School of Economics, was established in his honour.
- The Oxford Hayek Society, founded in 1983, is named after Hayek.
- The Cato Institute named its lower level auditorium after Hayek, who had been a Distinguished Senior Fellow at Cato during his later years.
- The auditorium of the school of economics in Universidad Francisco Marroquín in Guatemala is named after him.
- The Hayek Fund for Scholars of the Institute for Humane Studies provides financial awards for academic career activities of graduate students and untenured faculty members.
- The Ludwig von Mises Institute holds a lecture named after Hayek every year at its Austrian Scholars Conference and invites notable academics to speak about subjects relating to Hayek's contributions to the Austrian School.
- George Mason University has an economics essay award named in honour of Hayek.
- The Mercatus Center, a free-market think tank also at George Mason University, has a philosophy, politics, and economics program of study named for Hayek.
- The Mont Pelerin Society has a quadrennial economics essay contest named in his honour.
- Hayek was awarded honorary degrees from Rikkyo University, University of Vienna, and University of Salzburg.
- Hayek has an investment portfolio named after him. The Hayek Fund invests in corporations who financially support free market public policy organisations
- 1974: Austrian Decoration for Science and Art
- 1974: Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (Sweden)
- 1977: Pour le Mérite for Science and Art (Germany)
- 1983: Honorary Ring of Vienna
- 1984: Honorary Dean of WHU-Otto Beisheim School of Management
- 1984: Order of the Companions of Honour (United Kingdom)
- 1990: Grand Gold Medal with Star for Services to the Republic of Austria
- 1991: Presidential Medal of Freedom (United States)
- 1994: The FA Hayek Scholarship in Economics or Political Science, University of Canterbury. The scholarship supports students toward study for an honours or master's degree in the Economics or Political Science at the University. It was established in 1994 by a gift from entrepreneur Alan Gibbs.

Henry Hazlitt 
Was an American journalist who wrote about business and economics for such publications as The Wall Street Journal, The Nation, The American Mercury, Newsweek, and The New York Times. He is widely cited in both libertarian and conservative circles. He has wrote several books:
- Thinking as a Science, 1916
- The Way to Will-Power, 1922
- A Practical Program for America, 1932
- The Anatomy of Criticism, 1933
- Instead of Dictatorship, 1933
- A New Constitution Now, 1942
- Freedom in America: The Freeman (with Virgil Jordan), 1945
- The Full Employment Bill: An Analysis, 1945
- Economics in One Lesson (PDF). Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute. 2008. ISBN 978-1-933550-21-3. (Introduction by Walter Block)
- Will Dollars Save the World?, 1947
- Forum: Do Current Events Indicate Greater Government Regulation, Nationalization, or Socialization?, Proceedings from a Conference Sponsored by The Economic and Business Foundation, 1948
- The Illusions of Point Four, 1950
- The Great Idea, 1951 (titled Time Will Run Back in Great Britain, revised and rereleased with this title in 1966.)
- The Free Man's Library, 1956
- The Failure of the 'New Economics': An Analysis of the Keynesian Fallacies, 1959
- The Critics of Keynesian Economics (ed.), 1960
- What You Should Know About Inflation, 1960
- The Foundations of Morality, 1964
- Man vs. The Welfare State, 1969
- The Conquest of Poverty, 1973
- To Stop Inflation, Return to Gold, 1974
- The Inflation Crisis, and How To Resolve It. Auburn: Ludwig von Mises Institute. 2009. ISBN 978-1-933550-56-5.
- From Bretton Woods to World Inflation, 1984
- The Wisdom of the Stoics: Selections from Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius, with Frances Hazlitt, 1984
- The Wisdom of Henry Hazlitt, 1993
- Is Politics Insoluble?, 1997
- Rules for Living: The Ethics of Social Cooperation, 1999 (an abridgment by Bettina Bien Greaves of - Hazlitt's The Foundations of Morality.)
- Business Tides: The Newsweek Era of Henry Hazlitt, 2011

David R. Henderson 
 is a Canadian-born American economist and author who moved to the United States in 1972 and became a U.S. citizen in 1986, serving on President Ronald Reagan’s Council of Economic Advisers from 1982 to 1984. A research fellow at Stanford University’s Hoover Institution since 1990, he took a teaching position with the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California in 1984, and is now a full professor of economics.

Hans-Hermann Hoppe
is a German-born American Austrian School economist, and libertarian anarcho-capitalist philosopher. He is Professor Emeritus of Economics at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Senior Fellow of the Ludwig von Mises Institute, and the founder and president of the Property and Freedom Society.
Hoppe identifies as a culturally conservative libertarian. His remarks on the rights of property owners to establish private covenant communities, from which homosexuals and political dissidents may be "physically removed", has provoked controversy among both the libertarian community and Hoppe's colleagues at UNLV Business School. Hoppe also garners controversy due to his support for restrictive limits on immigration which critics argue is at odds with libertarianism and anarchism.

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Steven Landsburg 

Is an American professor of economics at the University of Rochester in Rochester, New York. From 1989 to 1995, he taught at Colorado State University. Landsburg is also an outspoken commentator on economic, legal, and political issues whose comments have sometimes been regarded as controversial. He wrote several boks:
- Price Theory and Applications (1989)
- The Armchair Economist (1993)
- Macroeconomics (1996)
- Fair Play (1997)
- More Sex is Safer Sex, The Unconventional Wisdom of Economics (2007)
- The Big Questions: Tackling the Problems of Philosophy with Ideas from Mathematics, Economics and Physics (2009)
- A Mathematical Introduction to General Relativity and Cosmology (unreleased)

Vakhtang Lejava 
Is a reform-minded Georgian, the Rector of the Free University of Tbilisi and Agricultural University of Georgia and chief adviser to the prime minister of Georgia in 2009–2012.
He was Deputy Minister of Infrastructure and Deputy Minister of the Economy in 2004 and in 2007–2008, Deputy State Minister of Reforms Coordination 2005–2007, Chief Adviser to the Prime Minister and Chief Adviser on Economic and Governance Affairs in 2009–2012, and Deputy Minister of Finance in 2012.
Vato was a leading member of government bodies that guided a wide range of exemplary economic, structural, regulatory and business climate reforms that covered, but was not limited to: Liberty Act, sector reforms, privatization, international trade and investment climate.
Vato Lejava led and coordinated swift and successful work on business reforms, resulting in Georgia's becoming No. 8 in 2014 globally, moving from No. 112 in 2005.
He was the negotiator from Georgian government side on the Economic Chapter of the Association Agreement with the EU; A key member of the negotiating team and the negotiator on two topics of the Georgian–EU negotiations on the DCFTA in 2009–2012. He represented Georgia in the Council of Europe GRECO (anti-corruption body), served as a deputy Chairman of the Anti-Corruption Council of Georgia. In this period Georgia moved in the Transparency International CPI Ranking from No. 124 (2003) to No. 51 (2014) outperforming some EU-member states.
Since 2012 he has managed a premier tertiary education institution – Free University of Tbilisi, that has doubled its intake retaining outstanding quality and record high employment rate of the graduates.
In 2014–2016 he was acting CEO of the Knowledge Fund, established by Kakha Bendukidze, that made unprecedented for Georgia private investment of app. 50 mln. USD into higher education. .
As a partner of consulting company Reformatics (est. 2012) Vato is currently advising a number of governments in Central Europe, Africa and Asia (2011–2015). Vato was a board member of the Georgian Rugby Union (2011–2015).

Roderick T. Long 
Is an American professor of philosophy at Auburn University and libertarian blogger. He also serves as an editor of the Journal of Ayn Rand Studies, director and president of the Molinari Institute, and a Senior Fellow at the Center for a Stateless Society. 
Long received a B.A. in philosophy from Harvard University and his Ph.D. from Cornell University. He edited the book Anarchism/Minarchism: Is a Government Part of a Free Country?. Long was an editor of the Journal of Libertarian Studies until it ceased publication, under his stewardship, in 2008.
According to Long, he specializes in "Greek philosophy; moral psychology; ethics; philosophy of social science; and political philosophy (with an emphasis on libertarian/anarchist theory)." Long supports what he calls "libertarian anarchy", but avoids describing this as "capitalism", a term he believes has inconsistent and confusing meanings.
Long identifies as a peace activist and points out that a "consistent peace activist must be an anarchist." He describes market anarchism as "a peaceful, consensual alternative" to society with a state. Long has identified himself as a bleeding-heart libertarian and has contributed to the Bleeding Heart Libertarians weblog.

Donald Luskin

Is Chief Investment Officer for Trend Macrolytics LLC, a consulting firm providing investment strategy and macroeconomics forecasting and research for institutional investors. Luskin is a contributing editor and columnist both for National Review Online (NRO) and SmartMoney.com. His columns touch on investing, economic and political matters. Luskin is a frequent guest on Larry Kudlow's CNBC television show, Kudlow & Company. He has published three books, Index Options and Futures: The Complete Guide, Portfolio Insurance: A Guide to Dynamic Hedging and I Am John Galt: Today's Heroic Innovators Building the World and the Villainous Parasites Destroying It. He also writes a blog, "The Conspiracy to Keep You Poor and Stupid," based on the title of his as-yet unpublished book. The blog's tagline is: "How big government, big business, big media and big academia block your road to financial freedom—and tell you it's for your own good." Luskin is a self-avowed libertarian, and his blog links to other financial and political blogs espousing similar beliefs. He has been a columnist for TheStreet.com and Business 2.0 magazine. His writings have appeared in the Wall Street Journal, the Washington Post, the Journal of Portfolio Management, the Harvard Business Review, and other publications.

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Deirdre McCloskey 
formerly known as Donald N. McCloskey, is the Distinguished Professor of Economics, History, English, and Communication at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). She is also adjunct professor of Philosophy and Classics there, and for five years was a visiting Professor of philosophy at Erasmus University, Rotterdam. Since October 2007 she has received six honorary doctorates. In 2013, she received the Julian L. Simon Memorial Award from the Competitive Enterprise Institute for her work examining factors in history that led to advancement in human achievement and prosperity. Her main research interests include the origins of the modern world, the misuse of statistical significance in economics and other sciences, and the study of capitalism, among many others.

Jeffrey Miron 
is an American economist. He served as the chairman of the Department of Economics at Boston University from 1992 to 1998, and currently teaches at Harvard University, serving as a Senior Lecturer and Director of Undergraduate Studies in Harvard's Economics Department. Miron holds the position of Director of Economic Policy Studies at the Cato Institute. Miron is an outspoken libertarian. He was one of the 166 economists to sign a letter to congressional leaders in opposition to the bailout plan put forth by the U.S. federal government in response to the global financial crisis of September–October 2008. 

Daniel J. Mitchell 
is a libertarian economist and senior fellow at the Cato Institute. He is a proponent of the flat tax and tax competition, financial privacy, and fiscal sovereignty. Mitchell’s career as an economist began in the United States Senate, working for Oregon Senator Bob Packwood. Mitchell left that position in 1990 and began a career at the Heritage Foundation. At Heritage, Mitchell worked on tax policy issues and began advocating for income tax reform.
In 2007, Mitchell left the Heritage Foundation, and joined the Cato Institute as a Senior Fellow. Mitchell continues to work in tax policy, and deals with issues such as the flat tax and international tax competition.
In addition to his Cato Institute responsibilities, Mitchell co-founded the Center for Freedom and Prosperity, an organization formed to protect international tax competition.

Gustave de Molinari 
Was a political economist and classical liberal theorist born in Liège, in the Walloon region of Belgium, and was associated with French laissez-faire economists such as Frédéric Bastiat and Hippolyte Castille. Some anarcho-capitalists consider Molinari to be the first proponent of anarcho-capitalism. In the preface to the 1977 English translation Murray Rothbard called "The Production of Security" the "first presentation anywhere in human history of what is now called anarcho-capitalism" though admitting that "Molinari did not use the terminology, and probably would have balked at the name." Austrian School economist Hans-Hermann Hoppe says that "the 1849 article 'The Production of Security' is probably the single most important contribution to the modern theory of anarcho-capitalism." In the past, Molinari influenced some of the political thoughts of individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker and the Liberty circle.
The market anarchist Molinari Institute, directed by philosopher Roderick Long, is named after Molinari, whom it terms the "originator of the theory of Market Anarchism."

Stephen Moore (writer) 
Is an American writer and economic policy analyst. He founded and served as president of the Club for Growth from 1999 to 2004. Moore is a former member of the Wall Street Journal editorial board. In 2014, The Heritage Foundation announced that Moore would become its chief economist. In 2015, Moore's title at Heritage changed from Chief Economist to his current title, Distinguished Visiting Fellow. Moore is known for advocating free-market policies and supply-side economics. In 2017, he left Fox News Channel to join CNN as an economics analyst.
Moore's work continues to appear regularly in the Wall Street Journal, The Washington Times, and various publications including The Weekly Standard and National Review.

Michael Munger
Is an economist and a former chair of the political science department at Duke University, where he continues to teach political science, public policy, and economics. He is a prolific writer, and his book Analyzing Policy: Choices, Conflicts, and Practices is now a standard work in the field of policy analysis. In 2008 he was the Libertarian candidate for Governor of North Carolina.

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William A. Niskanen
Was an American economist noted as one of the architects of President Ronald Reagan's economic programme and for his contributions to public choice theory. He was also a long-time chairman of the libertarian Cato Institute.

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José Piñera 
Is a Chilean economist, one of the so-called Chicago Boys, who served as minister of Labor and Social Security, and of Mining, in the military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. He is the architect of Chile's private pension system based on personal retirement accounts. Piñera has been called "the world's foremost advocate of privatizing public pension systems" as well as "the Pension Reform Pied Piper" (by the Wall Street Journal). He is now Distinguished Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute, a libertarian think tank based in Washington, President of the International Center for Pension Reform based in Santiago, Senior Fellow at the Italian libertarian think tank Istituto Bruno Leoni, and member of the Advisory Board of the Vienna-based Educational Initiative for Central and Eastern Europe. He has a Master and a Ph.D. in Economics from Harvard University. José Piñera is a Board Member in Chile and an active supporter of SOS Children's Villages, the largest orphan and abandoned children’s charity in the world. Today, Dr. Piñera is director of the magazine Economía y Sociedad, that was relaunched in November 2016
He is the elder brother of former president Sebastián Piñera with whom he has a longstanding conflict.

Benjamin Powell
is the director of the Free Market Institute at Texas Tech University and Senior Fellow at the Independent Institute, a libertarian think tank in the United States. Powell has studied the economics of anarchy. He wrote a journal article along with Ryan Ford and Alex Nowrasteh comparing Somalia before and after it transitioned to anarchy, that also served as a basis for a number of shorter pieces by him about Somalia and anarchy for more mainstream audiences.
Powell has also co-authored with Edward Stringham a paper on public choice theory and its implications for the economics of anarchy.

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Alan Reynolds 
Is one of the original supply-side economists.
He is Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute and was formerly Director of Economic Research at the Hudson Institute (1990–2000). He served as Research Director with National Commission on Tax Reform and Economic Growth (the Kemp Commission), advisor to the National Commission on the Cost of Higher Education, and member of the Office of Management and Budget transition team in 1981.
His studies have been published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the Joint Economic Committee, the Federal Reserve Banks of Atlanta and St. Louis and the Australian Stock Exchange. The latter paper was influential in the decision by the Australian government to cut the capital gains tax rate, in 1999.
Reynolds received his A.B. in economics from UCLA in 1965 and pursued graduate studies at night at California State University, Sacramento from 1967 to 1970.
He is the author of Income and Wealth (Greenwood Press 2006) and The Microsoft Antitrust Appeal (Hudson Institute 2001). He also wrote for numerous publications since 1971, including The Wall Street Journal, The New York Post, National Review, The New Republic, Fortune, The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Washington Times and The Harvard Business Review. Reynolds is a former columnist with Forbes, Reason and Creators Syndicate.

Russ Roberts
Is an economist and a research fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution. He is well known for communicating economic ideas in understandable terms as host of the EconTalk podcast.
Roberts categorizes himself as a proponent of classical economic liberalism. He has said, "I believe in limited government combined with personal responsibility. So I am something of a libertarian, but . . . that term comes with some baggage and some confusion.

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Murray Sabrin 
is a professor of finance in the Anisfield School of Business, Ramapo College of New Jersey. In 2008 he was a candidate for the Republican nomination for the United States Senate in New Jersey. He lost in the Republican primary to Dick Zimmer, a former member of the House of Representatives. He sought the Republican nomination to challenge Senator Cory Booker in 2014.

Arthur Seldon 
was joint founder president, with Ralph Harris, of the Institute of Economic Affairs, where he directed editorial affairs and publishing for more than thirty years.

James Shikwati 
Is a Kenyan libertarian economist and Director of the Inter Region Economic Network who promotes freedom of trade as the driving solution to poverty in Africa. He has made comments which imply that aid towards Africa does more harm than good to their people, based on the central arguments that it is mainly used either by politicians as a tool to manipulate people and influence votes, or as a mechanism for dumping subsidised foreign agricultural products onto local markets at below cost making it nearly impossible for African farmers to compete.

Julian Simon 
was an American professor of business administration at the University of Maryland and a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute at the time of his death, after previously serving as a longtime economics and business professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Simon wrote many books and articles, mostly on economic subjects. He is best known for his work on population, natural resources, and immigration. His work covers cornucopian views on lasting economic benefits from natural resources and continuous population growth, even despite limited or finite physical resources, empowered by human ingenuity, substitutes, and technological progress. His works are also cited by libertarians against government regulation.
He is also known for the famous Simon–Ehrlich wager, a bet he made with ecologist Paul R. Ehrlich. Ehrlich bet that the prices for five metals would increase over a decade, while Simon took the opposite stance. Simon won the bet, as the prices for the metals sharply declined during that decade.

Mark Skousen 
Is an American economist, investment analyst, newsletter editor, college professor and author.Skousen served as president of the free market nonprofit Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) from 2001 to 2002.
Skousen's brief tenure as president of FEE ended on a controversial note when he resigned in late 2002 at the request of the organization's Board of Trustees. This move followed Skousen's decision to invite, as keynote speaker for FEE's annual Liberty Banquet, New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani. Giuliani proved to be an extremely unpopular choice among many of the organization's board members as well as several prominent libertarians.
During his tenure at FEE, Skousen launched a non-partisan, libertarian conference, then titled "FEEFest," which premiered in Las Vegas in 2002. The goal was to bring all think tanks, organizations and people who are concerned about liberty, personal freedom, civil rights, free market principles and economic freedom, to meet and discuss important issues of the day. After Skousen left the presidency at FEE, the conference continued as "FreedomFest," first under the purview of Young America's Foundation, and later, under Skousen's own direction and ownership. The conference has grown to attract thousands of people each year, and focuses on issues of geopolitics and domestic politics, global economics, investing and personal finance, free markets and entrepreneurship, health and healthcare, education, arts and literature, science and technology, history, and philosophy. The conference is popular in the libertarian political movement. FreedomFest also houses the Anthem Film Festival, the world's only libertarian film festival, directed by Jo Ann Skousen.

Vernon L. Smith
 is an American professor of economics and law at Chapman University's Argyros School of Business and Economics and School of Law in Orange, California, a former professor of economics and law George Mason University, and a board member of the Mercatus Center in Arlington, Virginia.
Smith shared the 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Daniel Kahneman.
Smith is the founder and president of the International Foundation for Research in Experimental Economics, a Member of the Board of Advisors for The Independent Institute, and a Senior Fellow at the Cato Institute in Washington D.C. In 2004 Smith was honored with an honorary doctoral degree at Universidad Francisco Marroquín, the institution that named the Vernon Smith Center for Experimental Economics Research after him.

Jason Sorens
Jason Sorens is a lecturer in the department of government at Dartmouth College. He has been an affiliated scholar with the Mercatus Center at George Mason University since 2008. His primary research interests include fiscal federalism, public policy in federal systems, secessionism, and ethnic politics. Sorens received his B.A. in economics and philosophy, with honors, from Washington and Lee University and his Ph.D in political science from Yale University. He is the founder of the Free State Project and president of Ethics & Economics Education of New England, an effort to boost ethical and economic literacy in New England through programs for high schoolers, opinion leaders, and the general public.
Free State Project:
In July 2001, Sorens published an essay titled "Announcement: The Free State Project", in which he proposed the idea of a political migration, with 20,000 libertarians to move to a single low-population state (New Hampshire, selected in 2003) in order to make the state a stronghold for libertarian ideas.
As of February 3, 2016, 20,000 people have signed this statement of intent—completing the original goal—and 1,909 people are listed as "early movers" to New Hampshire on the FSP website, saying they have made their move prior to the 20,000-participant trigger.
Sorens' work has been published in International Studies Quarterly, Comparative Political Studies, Journal of Peace Research, State Politics and Policy Quarterly, and other academic journals, and his book Secessionism: Identity, Interest, and Strategy was published by McGill-Queen's University Press in 2012.

Thomas Sowell 
Is an American economist, turned social theorist, political philosopher, and author.
He is currently Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University. Sowell was born in North Carolina, but grew up in Harlem, New York. He dropped out of high school and served in the United States Marine Corps during the Korean War. He received a bachelor's degree, graduating magna cum laude from Harvard University in 1958 and a master's degree from Columbia University in 1959. In 1968, he earned his Doctorate in Economics from the University of Chicago.
Sowell has served on the faculties of several universities, including Cornell University and University of California, Los Angeles. He has also worked for think tanks such as the Urban Institute. Since 1980, he has worked at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. He writes from a libertarian conservative perspective, advocating supply-side economics. Sowell has written more than thirty books (a number of which have been reprinted in revised editions), and his work has been widely anthologized. He is a National Humanities Medal recipient.

Herbert Spencer

Heribert Spencer was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.
Herbert Spencer is very related with Social Darwinism, a social theory that applies the law of the survival of the fittest to society; humanitarian impulses had to be resisted as nothing should be allowed to interfere with nature's laws, including the social struggle for existence.

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Walter E. Williams

Walter Edward Williams (born March 31, 1936) is an American economist, commentator, and academic. He is the John M. Olin Distinguished Professor of Economics at George Mason University, as well as a syndicated columnist and author known for his classical liberal and libertarian conservative views.

Prominent currents

- Right-libertarianism

Paleolibertarianism
Paleolibertarianism is a variety of libertarianism developed by anarcho-capitalist theorists Murray Rothbard and Llewellyn Rockwellthat combines conservative cultural values and social philosophy with a libertarian opposition to government intervention.

NEO-CLASSICAL LIBERALISM


ANARCHO-CAPITALISM

Anarcho Capitalists argue that private enterprise can provide law enforcement, and the market place can resolve disagreements about what the law is and what the law means.
The free market is efficient and just.
People have the right to forcibly defend their property, and part of their property rights is the right to travel, to move goods about, and to make deals with those who are willing to make deals.
Freely competing groups without territorial monopoly can uphold justice and defend people. Enforcement should protect person and property, and not redistribute wealth, etc.

LEFT LIBERTARIANISM

Some authors consider left-libertarianism is a synonym for anti-authoritarian varieties of left-wing politics. Left-libertarianism can also refer to political positions associated with academic philosophers Hillel Steiner, Philippe Van Parijs and Peter Vallentyne that combine self-ownership with an egalitarian approach to natural resources.

LIBERTARIAN SOCIALISM

Libertarian socialism is a group of anti-authoritarian political philosophies inside the socialist movement that rejects socialism as centralized state ownership and control of the economy.

STEINER-VALLENTYNE SCHOOL

It exists the notion that one can have ownership of something yet at the same act on behalf of the needs of society as whole while possessing this item. The Steiner-Vallentyne school of thought has been offering such solutions for many years. Steiner and Vallentyne explored in two volumes the works of left-libertarianism which included some early works of philosophers such as John Locke but also from some socialist writers of the eighteenth century.

GEOLIBERTARIANISM

Geolibertarianism is a political and economic ideology particularly committed to tax reform that integrates libertarianism with Georgism(alternatively geoism or geonomics). It is most often associated with left-libertarianism or the radical center. Geolibertarians hold that geographical space and raw natural resources—any assets that qualify as land by economic definition—are rivalrous goods to be considered common property or more accurately unowned, which all individuals share an equal human right to access, not capital wealth to be privatized fully and absolutely.